### Horizontal and Vertical Measurements

```HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL
MEASUREMENTS
ENG 205
CE-ME-MECE-MSE
Vertical(adj.): going straight up or down from a level surface
or from a top to bottom in a picture etc.
Syn: perpendicular
Horizontal(adj.): parallel to the ground or to the bottom or
top edge of something.
e.g: If you place vertical lines next to horizontal lines, the
difference between the two is 90 degrees.
e.g:You can use horizontal and vertical lines as a guide when
e.g: The depth of a lake is measured vertically from the surface
of the water.
e.g: Measure the aircraft’s body horizontally to learn how wide
it is.
What is dimension?
 Dimension is a measurement of something in a particular
direction, especially its height, length or width.
Abbr. Dimension - dim
Dimensions - dims.
e.g: Don’t forget to measure the dimensions of the shelves so
that they fit securely into the cabinet.
e.g: An average football pitch has the dimensions of 105m by
68m.
What is the difference between 2D and 3D?
 in a 2-D picture the objects look flat rather than solid.
 in a 3-D picture, the objects look real and solid instead of
looking like a normal flat picture. (depth as well as length
and width.)
Linear Dimensions
 Linear dimensions, or linear units, measure the distance between
two points. Since two points define a line, the units of distance are
sometimes called "linear" units or dimensions.
 Some linear dimensions are
• centimeters and inches,
• meters and feet,
• kilometers and miles...
Vocabulary items
 Measure (v): to find the size, quantity, etc. of something in
standard units. Measuring something puts the amount of the
thing into numbers.
e.g: The area in front of our house was measured
yesterday. It’s 1 kilometre by 2 kilometres.
 Measurement (n): The act or the process of finding the
size, quantity or degree of something.
e.g: In order to reduce measurement error, take several
measurements and compute their average.
e.g: The exact measurements of the room are 3 metres 20
by 5 metres.
Vocabulary items
 Plane (n): a flat or level surface or an imaginary flat surface
which continues in all directions.
 Vertical Plane: a plane that passes through a vertical line. It
is perpendicular to the ground.
 Horizontal Plane: an imaginary plane which is at a right
angle to the vertical plane. It extends horizontally.
Vertical and Horizontal Planes
Vocabulary items
 Span (n): 1) the distance between two points.
2) The part of a bridge between one vertical support
and another.
e.g: In 1955, a two-span bridge was built to carry trains across to
the river.
a single span bridge
a two-span bridge
Vocabulary items
 Wingspan(n): the distance between the end of one wing
and the end of the other when the wings are fully stretched.
e.g: The green glider has a wingspan of 9 meters.
Vocabulary items
 Width (n): the distance across something from one side to
the other.
E.g: The additional cabin width offers passengers wider seats and
more aisle space.
I___cabin(internal) width___I
Vocabulary items
 Extremity (n): the furthest point, especially from the
centre.
E.g. An extra engine was installed at the rear extremity of
the aircraft.
 Thickness (n): the size of something between opposite
surfaces or sides.
Syn. Width
E.g. The walls are at least two feet in thickness.
Read the web page (dimensions of Airbus A380) in the book
 What is overall length?
Overall Length is the measurement which is taken between
the two points that are furthest apart, along the length (the
whole distance along it) of the aircraft.
 How is the overall height of an aircraft measured?
Overall height is measured vertically between the underside
of the wheels and a horizontal plane touching the top of the
tail.
 How is external width (maximum fuselage width) measured?
External width of an aircraft is measured horizontally
between vertical planes touching the outside faces of the
fuselage (body).
Dimensions of an aircraft
A?
A - Overall height
B?
B - Wingspan
C?
C - Maximum fuselage width
D – Overall length
D ?
Vocabulary items
 Level (adj.): horizontal and flat.
E.g: I couldn’t place the theodolite properly because the
ground was not level.
 Incline (n): to lean or slope in a particular direction.
Inclined (adj.): sloping; at an angle.
E.g: In this picture the surface has an incline of twenty
degrees.
Vocabulary items
 Plumb (adj.): exactly straight, usually describing a vertical
surface or line.
E.g. When you hang a door, you need to make sure that it is both
level and plumb.
 Out of plumb: not straight vertically.
E.g. Tower of Pisa is about 15 feet out of plumb.
EXERCISES
&
OVER TO YOU
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