APA Tips - College of Education

Report
Everything you always
wanted to know about APA
(But were afraid to ask)
Yiting Chu
College of Education Writing Center
What is APA?
Publication Manual of the
American Psychological Association,
6th edition
APA General Format
1-inch (at least) margins on four sides
Double-space (including References)
12-point font (preferred)
Times New Roman (preferred)
Five-level heading system
APA—Headings
Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
Flush Left, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
Indented, boldface, lowercase paragraph heading with a
period.
Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading with
a period.
Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading with a period.
APA—Headings Example
Methodology
Text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text
text text.
Research Design
Text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text
text text text text text.
Data collection. Text text text text text text text text text text text text
text text text text text.
Data sources. Text text text text text text text text text text text text
text text text text text.
Participants. Text text text text text text text text text text text text text
text text text text.
Data analysis. Text text text text text text text text text text text text
text text text text text text.
Results and Discussion
APA In-text Citations
Author-Date format
The last name of the author is followed directly by the year of
publication
 Author (Year)
e.g., Chu (2014) argues that …
 (Author, Year)
e.g., A research (Chu, 2014) indicates that…
In each case, always use a signal phrase.
APA In-text Citations
Single source with multiple authors
• Two authors: cite both names every time you refer to the work
e.g., Chu and Fisher (2003) state…
A study (Chu & Fisher, 2003) shows…
• Three to five authors: cite all authors the first time, in subsequent
citations, cite the first author, followed by “et al.”
e.g., Chu, Fisher, and Howell (2014) found…
…is also found in a study (Chu et al., 2014)
• Six and plus: cite the first author, followed by “et al.”
APA In-text Citations
Multiple sources, same author
 Same author, different years
e.g., Chu (2013, 2014) states that…
e.g., Studies (Chu, 2013, 2014) revealed …
 Same author, same year
e.g., Chu (2014a, 2014b) notes…
Multiple sources, different authors
e.g., Several researchers (Chu, 2013, 2014; Fisher, 1996) find…
Different authors with the same last name
Use first initials with last names
APA In-text Citations
Group as author
• Treat the group as the author and list the full name of the group
and abbreviation (if included in brackets in the first mention) in
subsequent citations
No authors or author unknown
• Cite the first few words of the title, using quotation marks
(article, chapter, or webpage) or italics (book)
APA In-text Citations
Direct quote vs. Indirect quote
INCLUDE THE PAGE NUMBER (S) when having a direct quote:
e.g., Chu (2014) says you should always “include the page
number (s) when having a direct quote” (p. xx).
e.g., xxx is defined as “……” (Chu, 2014, p. xx).
APA In-text Citations
Direct quote—Block quotation
•
•
•
•
•
Use a block quotation if and only if the quote is of 40 words or more
Start the block in a new line
Indent a half inch in front the quote
NO quotation marks around the quote
NO punctuation after the parentheses
For example:
Chu (2014) has said:
Text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text
text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text
text text text text text text text text text text (p. 15)
Text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text text
text text text.
APA-References
Begin on a separate page at the end of your paper called “References”
List all and only the works you have cited in the text
Alphabetize the works by the last name of the first author
• Works with the same author (s): order by year
• Works with the same author(s) in the same year
• Order alphabetically by the title (excluding A, An, or The)
• Lower case letters next to the year
• Works with the same first author
• Alphabetize by the last name (s) of the second (or the third or beyond) author
Paragraph—Special—Hanging
Double-space
APA-References-Common formats
Journal article:
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of the article: Subtitle of
the article. Title of the Journal, volume(issue), xxx-xxx.
Book:
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of the book: Subtitle of the book. Location: Publisher.
Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press
Edited book:
Editor, A. A., & Editor, B. B. (Eds.). (Year). Title of the book. Location: Publisher.
APA-References-Common formats
Book Chapter:
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of the chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title
of the book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.
Newspaper article:
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date). Title of the article. Title of the Newspaper, p. x.
/ pp. xx.
Online document:
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of the document. Retrieved from url
APA-References-Common formats
Personal Communications (Email, letter, phone call, and interview):
•
In-text citation only, initial + last name and date
e.g., Y. Chu (personal communication, October 30, 2014) said that…
APA Publication Manual provides examples of all major types of sources
APA—Mischievous
How to cite secondary source?
• Name the original source but cite the secondary source (the work you
actually read) in the text:
e.g., Fisher (2012, as cited in Chu, 2014) found that…
• And list the secondary source only in the References
How to cite source with no page number?
• Use paragraph number
e.g., Chu (2014, para. 5)
With no date?
• Chu (n.d.)
APA-Abstract
Separate page at the beginning of the paper
Center the word “Abstract”, no formatting
Single paragraph
Double-space
Do not indent
150-250 words
Include:
Objectives, research questions, methodology, major findings, significance of the
study, and conclusions. Implications for theory, research, practice, and/ or policy.
Keywords
Extra Resources
APA Style
http://www.apastyle.org/learn/tutorials/basics-tutorial.aspx
Purdue Owl
https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
University of Washington Library-Citation Styles & Tools
http://guides.lib.washington.edu/citations
Citation Machine
http://www.citationmachine.net/apa/cite-a-book
Thank You

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