Chapter 8

Report
Chapter 8
Human Growth
and Development
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
8:1 Life Stages
• Growth spans an individual’s lifetime
• Development is the process of becoming
fully grown
• Health care workers need to be aware of the
various stages and needs of the individual to
provide quality health care
(continues)
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Life Stages
(continued)
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Infancy: birth to 1 year
Early childhood: 1–6 years
Late childhood: 6–12 years
Adolescence: 12–20 years
Early adulthood: 20–40 years
Middle adulthood: 40–65 years
Late adulthood: 65 years and older
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Growth and Development Types
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Physical: body growth
Mental: mind development
Emotional: feelings
Social: interactions and relationships
with others
• Four types above occur in each stage
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Erikson’s Stages of
Psychosocial Development
• Erik Erikson was a psychoanalyst
• A basic conflict or need must be met
in each stage
• See Table 8-1 in text
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Infancy
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Age: birth to 1 year old
Dramatic and rapid changes
Physical development
Mental development
Emotional development
Social development
Infants are dependent on others for all
of their needs
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Early Childhood
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Age: 1–6 years old
Physical development
Mental development
Emotional development
Social development
The needs of early childhood include routine,
order, and consistency
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Late Childhood or Preadolescence
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Age: 6–12 years old
Physical development
Mental development
Emotional development
Social development
Children in this age group need parental
approval, reassurance, peer acceptance
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Adolescence
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Age: 12–20 years old
Physical development
Mental development
Emotional development
Social development
Adolescents need reassurance, support,
and understanding
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Eating Disorders
• Often develop from an excessive concern
for appearance
• Anorexia nervosa
• Bulimia
• More common in females
• Usually, psychological or psychiatric
intervention is needed to treat either
of these conditions
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Chemical Abuse
• Use of alcohol or drugs with the
development of a physical and/or mental
dependence on
the chemical
• Can occur at any life stage, but frequently
begins in adolescence
• Can lead to physical and mental disorders
and diseases
• Treatment towards total rehabilitation
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Reasons Chemicals Used
• Trying to relieve stress or anxiety
• Peer pressure
• Escape from either emotional or
psychological problems
• Experimentation
• Seeking “instant gratification”
• Hereditary traits or cultural influences
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Suicide
• One of the leading causes of death
in adolescents
• Permanent solution to temporary problem
• Impulsive nature of adolescents
• Most give warning signs
• Call for attention
• Prevention of suicide
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Reasons for Suicide
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Depression
Grief over a loss or love affair
Failure in school
Inability to meet expectations
Influence of suicidal friends or parents
Lack of self-esteem
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Increased Risk of Suicide
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Family history of suicide
A major loss or disappointment
Previous suicide attempts
Recent suicide of friends, family, or role
models (heroes or idols)
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Early Adulthood
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Age: 20–40 years old
Physical development
Mental development
Emotional development
Social development
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Middle Adulthood (Middle Age)
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Age: 40–65 years of age
Physical development
Mental development
Emotional development
Social development
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Late Adulthood
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Age: 65 years of age and older
Physical development
Mental development
Emotional development
Social development
The elderly need a sense of belonging,
self-esteem, financial security, social
acceptance, and love
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
8:2 Death and Dying
• Death is “the final stage of growth”
• Experienced by everyone and no one escapes
• Young people tend to ignore it and pretend it
doesn’t exist
• Usually it is the elderly, who have lost others,
who begin to think about their own death
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Terminal Illness
• Disease that cannot be cured and will result
in death
• People react in different ways
• Some patients fear the unknown while others
view death as a final peace
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Research
• Dr. Elizabeth Kübler-Ross was the leading
expert in the field of death and dying and
because of her research
– Most medical personnel now believe patients should
be informed of approaching death
– Patients should be left with some hope and know
they will not be left alone
– Staff need to know extent of information known
by patients
(continues)
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Research
(continued)
• Dr. Kübler-Ross identified five stages
of grieving
• Dying patients and their families and friends
may experience these stages
– Stages may not occur in order
– Some patients may not progress through them all,
others may experience several stages at once
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Stages of Death and Dying
• Denial—refuses to believe
• Anger—when no longer able to deny
• Bargaining—accepts death, but wants
more time
• Depression—realizes death will come soon
• Acceptance—understands and accepts the
fact they are going to die
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Caring for the Dying Patient
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Very challenging, but rewarding work
Supportive care
Health care worker must have self-awareness
Common to want to avoid feelings by
avoiding dying patient
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Hospice Care
• Palliative care only
• Often in patient’s home
• Philosophy: allow patient to die with dignity
and comfort
• Personal care
• Volunteers
• After death contact and services
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Right to Die
• Ethical issues must be addressed by the
health care worker
• Laws allowing “right to die”
• Under these laws specific actions to end
life cannot be taken
• Hospice encourages LIVE promise
• Dying Person’s Bill of Rights
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Summary
• Death is a part of life
• Health care workers must understand death
and dying process and think about needs of
dying patients
• Then health care workers will be able to
provide the special care these individuals
need
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
8:3 Human Needs
• Needs: lack of something that is required
or desired
• Needs exist from birth to death
• Needs influence our behavior
• Needs have a priority status
• Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
(See Figure 8-15 in text)
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Altered Physiological Needs
• Health care workers need to be aware
of how illness interferes with meeting
physiological needs
• Surgery or laboratory testing
• Anxiety
• Medications
• Loss of vision or hearing
(continues)
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Altered Physiological Needs
(continued)
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Decreased sense of smell and taste
Deterioration of muscles and joints
Change in person’s behavior
What the health care worker can do
to assist the patient with altered needs
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Meeting Needs
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Motivation to act when needs felt
Sense of satisfaction when needs met
Sense of frustration when needs not met
Must prioritize when several needs are felt
at the same time
• Different needs can have different levels
of intensity
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Methods for Satisfying Needs
• Direct methods
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Hard work
Set realistic goals
Evaluate situation
Cooperate with others
(continues)
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Methods for Satisfying Needs
(continued)
• Indirect methods
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Defense mechanisms
Rationalization
Projection
Displacement
Compensation
Daydreaming
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Methods for Satisfying Needs
(continued)
• Indirect methods (continued)
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Repression
Suppression
Denial
Withdrawal
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Summary
• Be aware of own needs and patient’s needs
• More efficient quality care can be provided
when needs are recognized
• Better understanding of our behavior and that
of others
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning

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