WHY VA CLINICIANS SHOULD TALK ABOUT SEX: AN OVERVIEW OF DIAGNOSTIC FEATURES, ASSESSMENT, & TREATMENT OF SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION Athena Yoneda, PhD Objectives 1) Review phases of the sexual response cycle and diagnostic features of corresponding sexual disorders. 2) Provide information and generate discussion about sexual health in the veteran population. 3) Provide an overview of frequently used assessment measures and treatments for the more common sexual dysfunction disorders. SELF-ASSESSMENT Let’s Talk About Sex Let's Talk About… Sex Orgasm Masturbation Clitoris Anal Sex Cunnilingus Pornography Sex Toys Erection Penis Lubrication Vagina Nipples Arousal Foreplay Fellatio Which of these statements best describes your approach to discussing sexuality with clients: I always ask questions regarding level of sexual satisfaction or functioning during an intake. I wait until I have established a good rapport with the client before bringing up issues of sexuality. I wait until the client brings up a problem related to sexuality. I only discuss sexual problems with my clients who are in relationships. I rarely discuss issues of sexuality with my clients. I have never discussed sexuality with any of my clients. (Bogey, 2008) Barriers Three factors contributing to clinicians’ avoidance of sexual topics: Knowledge deficits Personal emotional reactions Discomfort using sexual language (Risen, 1995) SEXUAL DYSFUNCTIONS Sexual Response Cycle Diagnostic Features Risk Factors and Implications Prevalence Rates Sexual Response Cycle Phase 1: Phase 2: Phase 3: Phase 4: Desire Excitement Orgasm Resolution (APA, 2000) Sexual Dysfunction Characterized by: Disturbance in sexual desire and the psychophysiological changes that characterize the sexual response cycle or Pain associated with sexual activity Cause marked distress or interpersonal difficulty Not better accounted for by another Axis I disorder Not due solely to a medical condition or substance (APA, 2000) Subtypes Onset: Lifelong Type Context: Generalized Acquired Type Type Situational Type Etiology: Due to Psychological Factors Due to Combined Factors (APA, 2000) Sexual Desire Disorders Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (302.71) A deficiency or absence of sexual fantasies or desire of sexual activity Most common sexual disorder in women Sexual Aversion Disorder (302.79) Aversion to/active avoidance of genital sexual contact with a sexual partner (APA, 2000) Sexual Arousal Disorders Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (302.72) Persistent/recurrent inability to attain or maintain adequate lubrication-swelling response of sexual excitement (until completion of sexual activity) Male Erectile Disorder (302.72) Persistent/recurrent inability to attain or maintain an adequate erection (until completion of sexual activity) (APA, 2000) Orgasmic Disorders Female Orgasmic Disorder (302.73) Persistent/recurrent delay in/absence of orgasm following normal sexual excitement phase and adequate stimulation Male Orgasmic Disorder (302.74) Persistent/recurrent difficulties in attaining orgasm following normal sexual excitement phase and adequate stimulation Premature Ejaculation (302.75) Persistent/recurrent ejaculation with minimal sexual stimulation (APA, 2000) Sexual Pain Disorders Dyspareunia (302.76) Genital pain associated with intercourse Vaginismus (306.51) Persistent, involuntary spasms of the vagina; interferes with intercourse (APA, 2000) Others Sexual Dysfunction Due to a General Medical Condition Clinically significant sexual dysfunction exclusively due to a general medical condition Substance-Induced Sexual Dysfunction Clinically significant sexual dysfunction exclusively due to substance use Differential: Substance Intoxication Specifiers used to describe predominant symptoms Sexual Dysfunction NOS (APA, 2000) Risk Factors What do you think are risk factors for developing a sexual dysfunction? Emotional problems/Poor psychological health Stress Relationship dissatisfaction Physical health problems Low SES and lower levels of education Age Childhood abuse (sexual/emotional/physical) Trauma history Medications (Heiman, 2002; Laumann et al.,1994; Lewis et al., Impact on Well-Being Sexual dysfunction can negatively impact: Romantic relationship functioning Ability to form intimate relationships Self-esteem and self-image Mental health Quality of life Healthy sexual functioning predicts: General well-being Physical health Healthy intimate relationships (Heiman; 2002; Kauth, 2012) Prevalence Rates: General Population Sexual Difficulties (Laumann et al., 1999) Women Sexual = 43% Men = 31% Dysfunction in Females Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: 17-55%; ~33% Female Sexual Arousal Disorder: 8-28% ; ~20% Female Orgasmic Disorder: 7-25% Dyspareunia: ~ 15% Sexual Dysfunction in Males Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: 0-7% ED: 12-19%; ~10% Premature Ejaculation: ~27% Dyspareunia: ~ 3 % (APA, 2000; Heiman, 2002; Lewis et al., 2010; Simons & Carey, VETERANS Sexual Dysfunction Veterans What do rates of sexual dysfunctions look like for veterans? Do veterans’ sexual health and functioning concerns differ from the general population? Probably Majority of studies look at: Medication SSRIs Effects effects impact on desire and arousal in male veterans of Military Sexual Trauma (MST) Impact of MST on female veterans’ sexual satisfaction (Kauth, 2012) Sexual Functioning in Veterans OEF/OIF veterans Sexual problems uniquely contribute to mental health problems (Nunnink, Fink, & Baker, 2012) 30.5% males with PTSD reported sexual problems (Nunnink et al., 2010) Male combat veterans with PTSD report more sexual problems (vs. those without PTSD) (Cosgrove et al., 2002) Less sexual satisfaction More orgasmic difficulties More erectile problems Sexual Assault and Sexual Functioning in Veterans Female veterans Those with MST history report greater dissatisfaction with their sex lives (50% vs. 34%) (Skinner et al., 2000) Those who endorsed pain during sexual intercourse more likely to have lifetime history of sexual assault (67% vs. 45%) (Sadler et al., 2012) OEF/OIF veterans with MST history (Turchik et al., 2012) More likely to have sexual dysfunction diagnosis Especially if have diagnosis of depression (males and females) or PTSD (males only) Males: Sexual Desire Disorder, Sexual Arousal Disorder Females: Sexual Desire Disorder, Sexual Pain Disorder, Sexual Arousal Disorder Discussion Experiences/thoughts about sexual dysfunction in veterans based on clinical experience? ASSESSMENT Sexual Dysfunctions Assessment: Considerations What are important factors to consider when assessing sexual dysfunction? Physical health Substance use/Medications Mental health Age Trauma history Relationship status and quality Sexual orientation Sexual history Culture, beliefs, and expectations (APA, 2000; IsHak et al., 2005) Clinical Interviews Structured Diagnostic Method (SDM; Utian et al., 2005) Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR, Axis I Disorders (SCID-I; First et al., 1994) Women’s Sexual Interest Diagnostic Interview (WSID; DeRogitas et al., 2008) Self-Report Questionnaires Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI; Rosen et al., 2000; Wiegel et al., 2005) International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF; Rosen et al., 1997) Sexual Desire Inventory-2 (SDI-2; Spector et al., 1996) Brief Index of Sexual Functioning for Women (BISF-W; Taylor et al., 1994) Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX; McGahuey et al., 2000) Quality of Sexual Function (QSF; Heinemann et al., 2005) Brief Sexual Functioning Questionnaire for Men (BSFQ-M; Reynolds et al., 1988) Sexual Function Questionnaire (SFQ; Quirk et al, 2002) Assessment Other factors to consider? Setting: Mental health vs. Primary care Clinician x Patient characteristics Others? Thoughts? PSYCHOSOCIAL INTERVENTIONS Sexual Dysfunctions Sensate Focus No sex (yet…)! Focus on sensations being experienced Structured Sensate Focus I Sensate Focus II Sensate Focus III Erectile Dysfunction, Female Orgasmic Disorder (Leiblum & Rosen, 2000) Treatment Overview Assessment Interview and questionnaires Remember to assess for other Axis I disorders and possible medical/substance-related causes Psychoeducation Identify unrealistic expectations Therapeutic intervention specific to sexual dysfunction (Leiblum & Rosen, 2000) Interventions: Desire and Arousal Individual or couples therapy Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Sensory awareness training Insight-oriented treatment Behavioral exercises Sensate focus (Leiblum & Rosen, 2000) Interventions: Orgasmic Disorders Females (Heiman, 2007) CBT Directed masturbation Males (Heiman, 2002) CBT Sensate focus Premature ejaculation: “Squeeze” and “Start-Stop” techniques Interventions: Pain Disorders CBT Individual or couples Biofeedback and relaxation therapy (IsHak et al., 2005; Leiblum & Rosen, 2000) References American Psychiatric Association. 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P., & Steinberg, L. (1996). The Sexual Desire Inventory: Development, factor structure, and evidence of reliability. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 22, 175–190. Taylor, J. F., Rosen, R. C., & Leiblum, S. R. (1994). Self-report assessment of female sexual function: Psychometric evaluation of the brief index of sexual functioning for women. Arch. Sex. Behav. 2, 627–643. References Turchik, J. A., Pavao, J., Nazarian, D., Iqbal, S., McLean, C., & Kimerling, R. (2012). Sexually transmitted infections and sexual dysfunctions among newly returned veterans with and without military sexual trauma. International Journal of Sexual Health, 24, 45-59. Utian, W. H., Maclean, D. B., Symonds, T., Symons, J. Somayaji, V., & Sisson, M. (2005). A methodology study to validate a structured diagnostic method used to diagnose female sexual dysfunction and its subtypes in postmenopausal women. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 31(4), 271-283. Weigel, M., Meston, C., & Rosen, R. (2005). The female sexual function index (FSFI): Crossvalidation and development of clinical cut-off scores. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 3, 120. Directed Reading Nunnink, S. E., Fink, D. S., & Baker, D. B. (2012). The impact of sexual functioning problems on mental well-being in U.S. veterans from the Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom OEF/OIF) conflicts. International Journal of Sexual Health, 24, 14-25.