ADA Curb Ramps

Presented by: Mike Sisson
February 23, 2012
 It is the Law
◦ The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.
 It is the Right Thing
◦ Provide Equal Access.
to do
 RC
◦ Stable, Firm and Slip
Resistant Surface.
◦ No Elevation Differences > ¼″.
◦ Ramp Slopes 12:1 (8.33%) or Flatter.
◦ 2% Maximum Cross Slope.
◦ Detectable Warning Surface.
◦ Minimum 4′ Wide Accessible Path (5′ for New Const.).
 Design/Bid/Build
◦ Department is Responsible for Design of Ramps.
◦ Contractor is Responsible for Construction.
 Design/Build
◦ Contract Item for Design of Ramps.
◦ Design/Build Team is Responsible for Design and
Read the Special Provisions.
Review ramp locations early.
Ensure ramp is within ROW, or obtain an
Authorization to Enter.
Ensure Technically Infeasible Forms (TIFs) are
done before construction if ramp cannot fully
meet the Standards.
Limited ROW
Existing Utilities
Existing Structures
Environmental Impacts
Historical Factors
Roadway Profile Slope
Must use sound engineering judgment.
Evaluated on a case-by-case basis.
Must include reasons Standards cannot be met.
Must include solution to provide access to the
maximum extent feasible.
Detail alternatives investigated.
Submitted to ADA Coordinator in EXCEL format.
Approved before construction.
Look for existing drainage issues.
Know how to use the Smart Level:
◦ 2 ′ vs. 4 ′ level
◦ Calibrated
◦ Measure in percentage of slope (%), not degrees (°)
Standard concrete placement requirements:
Source of Supply
Quality Control Plan
Certified Concrete Technician
Verify appropriate design and TIFs approved.
Check forms before, during, and after placement:
◦ Widths
◦ Depths
◦ Slopes (%, not °)
Maximum and minimum slope rates are absolute (No
construction tolerance).
Standard concrete placement documentation.
Install Detectable Warning Surfaces (DWS) per
manufacturer’s recommendations.
Complete Form CS 4401.
A Curb Ramp Inspection Form (CS-4401) is
required for each curb ramp and will be used for
the inspection of all altered curb ramps within
the project limits to ensure compliance to
PennDOT standards, contract documents, or
provided access to the maximum extent feasible.
The CS-4401 is a permanent record of how ADA
ramps were built and should be retained in the
project files.
Inspector ultimately is responsible to ensure
This form contains field measurements, pictures
of the constructed curb ramps, and images of the
Technically Infeasible Form (if applicable).
If any slopes or dimensions are out of range, the
Inspector needs to compare the results to the
design drawing(s). If the approved drawing(s)
indicated all elements are ADA compliant, and the
actual construction is not ADA compliant, the
ramp must be reconstructed at no additional
expense to the Department.
The Inspector must verify the completed CS-4401
is accurate if the contractor or another person
completes the form.
The electronic version of CS-4401 form can be
found by going to the PennDOT homepage
(, selecting “More Links…”
on the left side, then clicking “Americans with
Disabilities Act (ADA) and PennDOT”. From there,
you can then access all ADA related publications
and forms.
When any part of the CS-4401 has a Red Cell,
you must attach a TIF.
Note 8 To avoid chasing grade indefinitely when traversing
the height of the curb, ramp length not to exceed
4500 (15′-0″). Adjust ramp slope as needed to provide
access to the maximum extent possible.
Note 13 Provide detectable warning surfaces (DWS) 610 (24″)
minimum (in the direction of pedestrian travel) across full
width of ramp at the grade break near street edge. Provide
DWS that contrast visually with adjacent walkway surfaces,
either light-on-dark or dark-on-light for the full width of
Note 15 For new construction and alterations, construct curb ramp
and flare slopes with the flattest slope possible. The slopes
indicated in the details show the max slope allowable.
Slopes that exceed those indicated in the details, or
contract documents as applicable, will not be accepted and
will be reconstructed.
Start coordinating early.
Read the Special Provisions.
If in doubt, ask questions.
Consider drainage throughout the process
Provide for a margin of error is possible.

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