ppt - University of Michigan

Report
Chop-SPICE:
An Efficient SPICE Simulation
Technique For Buffered RC Trees
Myung-Chul Kim, Dong-Jin Lee
and Igor L. Markov
Dept. of EECS, University of Michigan
TAU 2011, Myung-Chul Kim, University of Michigan
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Fast SPICE Simulation: Motivation
■ IC timing closure, especially at advanced technology
nodes, heavily depends on highly-accurate
timing simulations
− Increasing impact of PVT variation
− Rigorous clock skew/slew constraints
■ Circuit size and complexity rapidly increasing
− Scalable SPICE technique is critical
TAU 2011, Myung-Chul Kim, University of Michigan
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Key Feature of Chop-SPICE
■ Developed as a compromise simulator
(fast yet sufficiently accurate) for use
by Contango2 software in the ISPD 2010 contest
■ Simple and practical divide-and-conquer approach
■ Can capture PVT variation and spatial correlation
■ Flexible trade-off between runtime
and solution quality
■ Adaptability to various SPICE simulators
TAU 2011, Myung-Chul Kim, University of Michigan
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ISPD10 Clock Tree Synthesis Contest
■ 45nm 2GHz CPU benchmarks from IBM and Intel
■ Objective: Minimize the overall capacitance
of the clock network
− Subject to constraints:
– Monte-Carlo SPICE simulations with PVT variations
– Local clock skew < 7.5 ps
– Slew rate < 100ps
– Hard runtime limit per benchmark < 12 hours
■ Low-skew clock trees are especially unforgiving
to timing-analysis inaccuracies
TAU 2011, Myung-Chul Kim, University of Michigan
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Speed
Prior Work
Ideal Timing Evaluator
Elmore,
D2M,
LnD
Delay Models
Simulation
SPICE,
AWE
Accuracy
■ Ideal Timing Evaluator
− Fast runtime without sacrificing accuracy
− High fidelity, adaptability to various SPICE tools
TAU 2011, Myung-Chul Kim, University of Michigan
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Chop-SPICE Algorithm
■ Definition: Probing Points
− Given an RC tree , probing points are defined as
A. Input nodes of buffers
B. Sink nodes
−
= Set of probing points
−
= Number of fanouts to probing points
at node si
■ Example
TAU 2011, Myung-Chul Kim, University of Michigan
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Chop-SPICE Algorithm
■ Definition: Granularity
− Maximum Granularity:
− Minimum Granularity:
− Granularity Range:
− Target Granularity:
■ Target Granularity determines minimum number
of probing points to be included in sub-circuits
TAU 2011, Myung-Chul Kim, University of Michigan
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Chop-SPICE Flow
RC Tree instance
RC Tree traversal
no
Target granularity
reached?
yes
Sub-circuit generation
Apply input slew stimuli
Delay and slew
propagation
Invoke SPICE simulation
Delay and slew update
no
RC tree
exhausted?
yes
End
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Sub-circuit Generation
■ Sub-circuits are always delimited by buffers
− If a probing point is an
input node of buffer(s),
all fanout buffers are
explicitly included
in current sub-circuit
− Buffers at the boundary
of a sub-circuit may also
appear in another
sub-circuit.
■ Facilitating accurate reconstruction of circuit delay
from sub-circuit simulation data
■ Can reduce AC sweep time for sub-circuits
TAU 2011, Myung-Chul Kim, University of Michigan
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Delay Propagation
■ Purpose :
After retrieving probing points’ delay from SPICE, they can
be propagated in order to capture delay for probing points
in subsequent sub-circuits.
■ Calculation of delay from the root node s0 to node sj
− Find the sub-circuit containing sj .
− Identify the shortest tree path from s0 to sj , and the
earliest node si in the sub-circuit that lies on this tree
path (Assume that signal delay from s0 to si was
computed recursively).
− The delay from si to sj is obtained by SPICE simulation
and added to delay at si.
TAU 2011, Myung-Chul Kim, University of Michigan
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Slew Propagation
■ Purpose :
After retrieving probing points’ slew from SPICE, they
can be used in order to capture slew for probing points
in subsequent sub-circuits.
■ Slew at a given node can be expressed as a function
of input slew of a sub-circuit.
− Slew measured at the previous stage (up to the root
node si in a given sub-circuit) should be accounted for
when stimuli for the current sub-circuit are generated.
− Slew at a node is directly calculated by SPICE
simulation.
TAU 2011, Myung-Chul Kim, University of Michigan
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Empirical Results: ISPD10 Benchmarks
■ Experimental setup
− Single threaded runs on a 3.2GHz Intel core i7
Quad CPU Q660 Linux workstation
− Buffered RC networks generated by applying
Contango2 to ISPD’10 high-performance CNS
contest benchmark suite
− Open-source NgSPICE-2.2
■ Target granularity
− Varies from
(full-scale SPICE simulation)
to
in order to examine trade-offs
TAU 2011, Myung-Chul Kim, University of Michigan
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Empirical Results: Avg. Error
TAU 2011, Myung-Chul Kim, University of Michigan
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Empirical Results: Max. Error and Trade-off
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Fidelity
■ Fidelity suggests whether Chop-SPICE is effective as
a replacement of full-scale SPICE during optimization
− On intermediate clock trees produced by Contango2,
we use Chop-SPICE and full-scale SPICE to measure
sink delays before and after optimization
TAU 2011, Myung-Chul Kim, University of Michigan
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Future work
■ Extension to general RC networks
− An algorithm for computing signal delays in non-tree RC
networks by partitioning a given circuit into a spanning
tree and non-tree links, and invoking an RC-tree
computation is given [6]
− A recent study [16] report 98% correlation to full SPICE
runs.
■ Using parallelism
− Two sub-circuits can be simulated in parallel
if they do not lie on the same path to root.
− The larger the RC tree, the more parallelism
can be found.
TAU 2011, Myung-Chul Kim, University of Michigan
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Conclusions
■
Accurate estimation of circuit delay is becoming more difficult at
new technology nodes
− Clock-skew estimation in CNS requires picosecond precision
■
Chop-SPICE partitions the original RC tree into sub-circuits,
simulates each of them with SPICE, and reconstructs global
results from simulation data for sub-circuits
■
Empirical validation shows that Chop-SPICE offers attractive
trade-offs between accuracy and runtime
■
Chop-SPICE provides not only good accuracy, but also fidelity
sufficient for use in external optimization algorithms
■
Can be applied to any SPICE simulators
TAU 2011, Myung-Chul Kim, University of Michigan
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Questions and Answers
Thank you!
Time for Questions
TAU 2011, Myung-Chul Kim, University of Michigan
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