- DairyMD.com

Report
Managing Reproduction
in a Modern Dairy Herd
Gregory M. Goodell, DVM
The Dairy Authority, LLC

Transitioning a cow properly through the
post partum period

Heat Detection/Timed AI

Pregnancy Diagnosis

Monitoring the reproductive process
Components of Establishing
Pregnancy

Extremely important

Large impact

Multifactorial
Transition through post partum
period
Michael W. Overton, DVM, MPVM
University of Georgia-College of Veterinary Medicine, Athens, GA

Heat Detection
◦ Observe for signs of estrous
◦ Advantages:
 Less expensive and easier to implement
◦ Disadvantages
 Time consuming, more skill required
Heat Detection: How do I find
cows that are ready to breed?

Marking Crayons/Chalk

Pressure-sensitive pads

Pedometers

Rumen boluses
Heat Detection Aides
Pressure Sensitive Pads
HeatWatch Pressure Pad
Pedometers

Train personnel on signs of estrous

Cannot cut corners here!

Excellent tools for vets from stud services
and breeding companies

Review numbers often as a program
starts to evaluate heat detection
numbers.
Implementing Heat Detection on a
Dairy

Many different programs

Success depends on management/style of
the dairy

Labor intensive

Compliance a must
Timed Artificial Insemination
(TAI)
TAI Programs
CIDRSync Programs
with CIDRs

Veterinarian should couple the
management ability of the dairy with the
TAI program

A producer will almost always go for the
program with the best published rates but
demand the most convenient program

In general the more intense the program
the better the rates
Which TAI Program is Best?

Same time every day of week and time
(including Christmas day and July 4th!)

All cows MUST be found.
◦ Missed injections primary cause of compliance
failure.
Compliance to TAI Programs

Preg rate = Heat detection X Conception rate

TAI programs force 100% heat detection

If a TAI program requires 6 visits to the cow and
we miss 5% of the cows at all visits then we’ve
reduced effective heat detection rate from 100 to
70%. If conception rate is 40% then we’ve
reduce preg rate by 12%
Example of Compliance
TAI Program
Cow Visits
Preg Rate
Cost per
Cow
CoSync 72
3
28-33%
$7.22
OvSync 48
4
28-33%
$7.38
OvSync 56
4
30-35 %
$7.38
PreSync 12/OvSync 56
6
32-38%
$11.90
PreSync 14/OvSync 56
6
32-38%
G6G
6
40-50%
$11.80
Double OvSync
7
40-50%
$13.96
Preg Rates and Costs
$11.90
TAI Program
Cow Visits
Preg Rate
Cost per
Cow
CoSync 72
3
28-33%
$7.22
OvSync 48*
4
28-33%
$7.38
OvSync 56*
4
30-35 %
$7.38
PreSync 12/OvSync 56*
6
32-38%
$11.90
PreSync 14/OvSync 56*
6
32-38%
G6G
6
40-50%
$11.80
Double OvSync
7
40-50%
$13.96
* If CIDR used add another $9.00
Preg Rates and Costs
$11.90

Rectal Palpation

Ultrasound

Blood Test

Milk Test
Pregnancy Diagnosis

Most common form of pregnancy
diagnosis for cattle

Conducted between 30-50 days after
breeding

Sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 96%
when conducted between 35 and 45 d
post AI

Chronic Trauma to shoulder
Rectal Palpation

Usually performed between 28-35 days

Sensitivity of 97.7% and specificity of
87.7% when conducted between 26 and
33 d post AI (Pieterse et al., 1990)

Skills vary among ultrasonographers

Rechecks still must be done

Reduced shoulder trauma if extension arm
used.
Ultrasonography

Current controversy regarding stage to
preg check

Research shows no difference in
economics when preg check between 32
and 39 days (Silva, et al 2009 )

At 39 days U/S not required and neither is
early P2
Ultrasonography

Detection of early pregnancy-associated
glycoproteins (PAGs)

Pregnancy-Specific Protein B (PSPB)

Proteins only produced by the placenta of
the growing fetus
Blood Tests for Pregnancy

Sensitivity reported to be between 96-99%

Specificity reported to be between 97-99%

Lay personnel can pull the sample

Often combined with other modalities of
pregnancy diagnosis allowing for coverage of
more animals or larger herds

Decrease physical wear and tear of shoulder
Advantages of Blood Testing

Requires minimum of 24 hours to achieve
result

Does not provide any fetal staging

Half life of some PAGs may be as long as
90 day postpartum
Disadvantages of Blood Testing

bioTracking

Idexx

Conception
Commercially Available Tests

Test name is BioPryn

Located in Moscow, Idaho

Characteristics
◦ Se/Sp is 100/87.8 at 30-36 days post breeding
◦ Used as early as 28 days post breeding
◦ Must wait until 90 days postpartum

Cost is $2.50-$3.50 per sample
bioTracking

Idexx Bovine Pregnancy Test

Serum or milk

Located in Westbrook, Maine

Characteristics
◦ Se/Sp is 99.3%/95.1% at 30 days post breeding
◦ Used as early as 28 days post breeding
◦ Must wait 60 days post partum before using

Cost between $2.50 and $3.00 per sample
Idexx

Test name is DG29

Located in Québec, Canada

Characteristics
◦ Se/Sp is 99.4/100 at 29 days post breeding
◦ Used as early as 29 days post breeding
◦ Must wait 90 days post partum before using

Cost between $3.20 and $4.00 per sample
Conception
Reproduction Analysis

Case Definitions!!

Pregnant Cows/Exposed Cows

Pregnancy Rate, DIM, DOPN, etc.
◦ Include cows in EWP?
◦ Include Dead/Sold Cows?
◦ Include Dry Cows?
◦ Frequency of preg checks
Basic Concepts

40-45% of milking herd pregnant

180-200 Average DIM

Cull rate less than 35% (???)
High Production Herd
Characteristics

# milking cows pregnant/total # of cows
milking.

30-50% is the goal (moves with DIM)

Dry cows not included

In DC305…
◦ Sum by rc for rc=1-5 Lact>0\B
% of the Milking Herd Pregnant

Days in milk at first breeding (DIMFB)

Days Open (DOPN)

Days in milk (DIM)
Herd Averages

Days in milk at first breeding (DIMFB)

Days Open (DOPN)

Days in milk (DIM)
Count AvDIMFB Av DOPN Av
DIM
------ ------- ------- -------
2851
62
Herd Averages
119
180

Days in milk at first breeding (DIMFB)

Days Open (DOPN)

Days in milk (DIM)
Count AvDIMFB Av DOPN Av
DIM
------ ------- ------- -------
2851
62
119
180
4412
63
146
200
Herd Averages

Need to be certain of where CLEANUP
parameters are set

Commands like COUNT, SUM and PCT do
NOT look at sold/died cows unless told to

Switches in DC305
◦ \B, \D, \L
Using DC305 for Repro Analysis

# milking cows preg and >150 DIM /
#cows milking and greater than 150 DIM

In DC305…
◦ Sum by RC for DIM>150 RC=1-5 Lact>0

Goal 50-70% (moves with DIM)

Dry cows not included
% Milking Herd Preg and >150
DIM

Calendar Month

Times Bred

Tech

Breeding Code

Interval Analysis

Day of the Week
Specific Areas of Monitoring
By Calendar Month for past 12 months
Month
95% CI %Conc #Preg #Open Other Abort Total %Tot SPC
==================== ====== ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== ==== ====
2012 January
35-45
40
142
214
72
41
428
4 2.5
2012 February
35-44
40
179
271
79
46
529
5 2.5
2012 March
35-43
39
204
319
108
47
631
6 2.6
2012 April
37-45
41
251
358
134
62
743
8 2.4
2012 May
36-44
40
220
336
110
47
666
7 2.5
2012 June
28-35
31
178
392
74
46
644
7 3.2
2012 July
13-19
16
100
531
117
20
748
8 6.3
2012 August
8-12
10
83
742
134
8
959
10 9.9
2012 September
14-18
16
158
837
203
11 1198
12 6.3
2012 October
27-32
29
314
754
310
19 1378
14 3.4
2012 November
37-44
41
333
487
166
6
986
10 2.5
2012 December
30-38
34
192
373 * 144
2
709
7 2.9
2013 January
0
0
93 * 141
0
234
2
TOTALS
28-30
29 2354 5707 1792
355 9853 100 3.4
1002 non-AI breedings were omitted
By Times Bred
Bred Number
95% CI %Conc #Preg #Open Other Abort Total %Tot SPC
==================== ====== ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== ==== ====
1 27-40
33
62
124
4
0
190
32 3.0
2 30-46
37
51
86
0
1
137
23 2.7
3 22-42
31
25
55
4
1
84
14 3.2
4 18-40
27
17
45
2
1
64
11 3.6
5 18-47
31
11
25
1
0
37
6 3.3
6 22-56
37
10
17
1
0
28
5 2.7
7 12-55
29
4
10
2
0
16
3 3.5
8 15-58
33
5
10
1
0
16
3 3.0
OTHERS
6-38
16
3
16
3
0
22
4 6.3
TOTALS 29-37
33
188
388
18
3
594 100 3.1
35 non-AI breedings were omitted
By Technician
Technician
95% CI %Conc #Preg #Open Other Abort Total %Tot SPC
==================== ====== ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== ==== ====
Efrain
19-31
25
50
153
5
1
208
35 4.1
Luis
17-35
25
21
64
4
0
89
15 4.0
Alfonso
35-46
41
117
171
11
2
299
50 2.5
TOTALS
29-37
33
188
388
20
3
596 100 3.1
35 non-AI breedings were omitted
By Breeding Code
Breeding Code
95% CI %Conc #Preg #Open Other Abort Total %Tot SPC
==================== ====== ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== ==== ====
CIDR
12-49
26
5
14
0
1
19
3 3.8
Thur PM
40-63
52
33
31
3
1
67
11 1.9
Normal
31-44
37
85
142
8
1
235
39 2.7
TAI
20-30
25
65
199
9
0
273
46 4.1
OTHERS
0-66
0
0
2
0
0
2
0
TOTALS
29-37
33
188
388
20
3
596 100 3.1
35 non-AI breedings were omitted
By Day of the Week
Week Day
95% CI %Conc #Preg #Open Other Abort Total %Tot SPC
==================== ====== ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== ===== ==== ====
Monday
24-55
38
13
21
0
0
34
6 2.6
Tuesday
36-70
54
15
13
0
1
28
5 1.9
Wednesday
25-51
37
17
29
5
0
51
9 2.7
Thursday
33-52
42
45
62
3
1
110
18 2.4
Friday
22-32
26
81
225
11
1
317
53 3.8
Saturday
14-44
27
8
22
0
0
30
5 3.8
Sunday
20-55
36
9
16
1
0
26
4 2.8
TOTALS
29-37
33
188
388
20
3
596 100 3.1
35 non-AI breedings were omitted

Survival Analysis on DOPN

DC305 command…
◦ Graph DOPN for Lact>0 RC=1-5\S
◦ Survival Curve
DIM for 25, 50 and 75% Preg.
Rate
GRAPH DOPN\S
GRAPH DOPN FOR TID=3 WITH
TID<>3\S

Caveats
◦ Interpret results with other repro parameters
◦ There is a lag in reproduction data equal to
days till preg check post breeding
◦ Should also apply monitoring techniques to
parity groups
DOPN Cohort Analysis

Know the case definition

Record the data often

Look at the data often

Check data against other criteria
Conclusion

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