History-of-Nutel

Report
The evolution of high energy neutrino
telescopes
Christian Spiering
DESY
The evolution of high energy neutrino
telescopes
…a long march
which has not
yet reached
its end.
underground
optical:
- deep water
- deep ice
- air showers
- radio
- acoustics
underground
optical:
- deep water
- deep ice
- air showers
- radio
- acoustics
This talk will essentially address
the optical telescopes deep under
water and in ice. See the written
version for the high-energy frontier
and the corrersponding techniques
Ann.Rev.Nucl.Sci
10 (1960) 63
Ann.Rev.Nucl.Sci
10 (1960) 1
Moisej Markov
M.Markov,
Bruno Pontecorvo
1960:
„We propose to install detectors deep in a lake or in the sea and
to determine the direction of charged particles with the help
of Cherenkov radiation“ Proc. 1960 ICHEP, Rochester, p. 578.
Central interest: cross sections, W-mass
… one of the main motivations for Reines‘ South Africa detector, the Kolar Gold
Field Detector (India) and the Baksan scintillation detector. Early sixties: does
the neutrino cross section saturate beyond 1 GeV (i.e. one would never measure
atm. neutrinos with energies higher than a few GeV). The question was relaxed in
the mid seventies:
First measurement of atmospheric
neutrinos
Beside several ideas like e.g.
 H. Uberall and C. Cowan, 1965
CERN Conf. on Experimental
Neutrino Physics, p. 231
– Downward looking PM observing a
10 m thick water target, „possibly in
ocean or a lake“
 V. Bogatyrev, Yad.Fiz 13 (1971) 336
– Three detectors each 107 tons of distilled
water a several km depth, widely spaced
 SN triangulation
in 1965 detection of nearly
horizontal atmospheric neutrinos
by F. Reines in a South African
Gold mine.
DUMAND
See also: A.Roberts: The birth of high-energy neutrino
astronomy: a personal history of the DUMAND project,
Rev. Mod. Phys. 64 (1992) 259.
 1973 ICRC, Reines, Learned, Shapiro, Zatsepin, Miyake:
a deep water detector to clarify puzzles in muon depth-intensity
curves
 Puzzles faded away, but there remained the awareness that such
a detector could also work as neutrino detector
 The name: DUMAND (Deep Underwater Muon And Neutrino
Detector), proposed by Fred Reines
 1975: First DUMAND Workshop in Washington State College
 DUMAND Steering Committee, chaied by F.Reines, J. Learned, .
A.Roberts
Principle and capabilities
 Angular resolution of
1° possible
 astrononomy
 Energy resolution for
muons is 50% at
best, for 1 km track
length


The DUMAND Workshops
 An unbelievable source of basic ideas
(including crazy ones which are sometimes the most exciting)





1976 Honolulu
1978 Scripps
1979 Khabarovsk/Baikal
1978 Honolulu
Plus dedicated workshops on deployment, acoustic
detection, signal procressing and ocean
engineering
Which physics?
 UNDINE: UNderwater Detection of Interstellar Neutrino
Emission
– i.e. Supernova  too rarely to optimize an ocean detector for it ( IMB)
 ATHENE: ATmospheric High-Energy Neutrino Experiment
– Better with underground experiments
A. Roberts:
 UNICORN: UNderwater Interstellar COsmic Ray Neutrinos
– The high energy option
– preferred option, but: how large are the fluxes ?
–  think as big as possible !
1978: 1.26 km³
22,698 OMs
1980: 0.60 km³
6,615 OMs
1982: 0.015 km³
756 OMs
1988:
0.002 km³
216 OMs
DUMAND-II
Financial and technological reality !
DUMAND-II (The Octagon)





9 strings
216 OMs
100 diameter, 240 m height
Depth of bottom: 4.8 km
Lowest OM 100 m above
bottom
p  p    ....
   
 e  e  
p  n

or
  
 p
0
  
Point sources, DUMAND-II (0.002 km³)
expectations in the eighties
!!!
Note: in 1989, the only proven TeV  source was the Crab SNR!
With these assumptions, a km³ detector would have discovered 5-50 (worst scenario)
up to several ten thousand events (best scenario) per source
Diffuse sources, DUMAND-II (0.002 km³)
expectations in the eighties
Technology boosts
 Optical fibers with < 12 db
attenuation over 40-km length
and data rates of hundreds of
MBaud (Nobel prize 2009!)
 Appearance of
16“ Hamamatsu PMT
JOM
Japanese Optical Module
 Appearance of
14“ „smart“ Philips PMT
EOM
European Optical Module
1987: The SPS
„Short Prototype String“
 1982-87:
a series of 14 cruises,
with two lost strings
 1987: success !
– depth-intensity curve
– angular distributions
– attenuation lenght (4722 m)
DUMAND after the SPS:





1989: HEPAP supports DUMAND-II
1990: DOE allocates funds for DUMAND-II
Further financial cuts  TRIAD (3 strings)
1993: shore cable laid
December 1993: deployment of first string and
connection to junction box. Failure after several
hours
 1995: DUMAND project is terminated
Russia
 Very active during early DUMAND workshops
(Chudakov, Berezinsky, Bezrukov, Zhelesnykh, Petrukhin)
 Kicked out of DUMAND after Russian Afghanistan invasion
A. Roberts:
 1980: Chudakov proposes exploration of Lake Baikal as
possible site for a neutrino telescope
 1981: start of site investigations at Lake Baikal
(Domogatksy, Bezrukov)
 Exploration of Atlantic, Black Sea, Indian Ocean, Pacific and
Mediterranean sites (Zheleznyk, Petrukhin)

A. Roberts: „Communication among these groups is not very good“
The Lake BAIKAL experiment
Bezrukov, Domogatsky, Berezinsky, Zatsepin
G. Domogatsky




Largest fresh water reservoir in the world
Deepest Lake (1.7 km)
1981: first site explorations & R&D
Choosen site 3.6 km from shore, 1.3 km
depth
Ice as a natural deployment platform
… and its mis-interpretation:
A. Roberts:
Lake Baikal: the eighties
 1984: first stationary string
– Muon flux measurement
 1986: second stationary string
(Girlyanda 86)
– Limits on GUT
magnetic monopoles
 All that with 15-cm
flat-window PMT FEU-49
 Development of a Russian
smart phototube (Quasar)
Towards NT-200
J. Learned to C.Spiering:

1988: Germany joins

1989/90: design of NT-200

1993 + 1994: NT-36
- 18 channels at 3 strings
- first underwater array
- first 2 neutrino candidates

1995: NT-72
- 38 channels at 4 strings

1996: NT-96
- 48 channels at 4 strings
- clear neutrinos

1998: NT-200
- 96 channels at 8 strings
„Congratulations for winning
the 3-string race!“
(NT-36 vs TRIAD vs AMANDA)
4-string stage (1996)
NT-200
2 PMTs in coincidence
to surpress background
NT-200
NT200 results
396  candidates
 Atmospheric neutrinos
 WIMP search
 Diffuse neutrino fluxes
 Skymap
 GRB coincidences
 Magnetic monopoles
NT200+
For searches of diffuse neutrino fluxes, the small NT200
could compete with the much larger Amanda by monitoring
a large volume below the detector. NT200+ fences this volume.
construction
1993-1998
NT200
NT200+
- upgrade 2005/06
- 4 times better sensitivity than
NT200 for PeV cascades
- basic cell for km3 scale detector
140 m
12 clusters of strings
NT1000: top view




Sacrifice low energies (muon threshold ~ 10 TeV)
Protoype strings being tested
Modular clusters, stepwise installation > 2012
~ 2000 optical modules (conventional PMs)
L~ 350
m
Gigaton Volume Detector, GVD
All other deep water/ice detector projects started
around 1990 or later.
In the eighties /early nineties, shallow detectors
have been proposed but never built.
On the other hand, deep underground detectors
reached their full blossom:
- solar neutrinos
- supernova neutrinos
- limits on proton decay
- first hints to neutrino oscillations
- sky maps
Shallow detector projects
 Advantages: easy access, less challenging environment
 Disadvantages: huge background, not expandable
 GRANDE
– Shallow water, Lake, Arkansas, H. Sobel (Irvine)
 LENA
– Artificial water pool, Gran Sasso, M.Koshiba
 SINGAO
– Resistive Plate Chambers, Italy/UK
 Swedish lakes
– Early nineties, before Sweden joined Amanda
Underground Detectors
 KGF
 Baksan
 FREJUS
 Soudan
 IMB
 Kamiokande
Superkamiokande
 MACRO
e.g. MACRO, 1356 upgoing muons
~ 1000 m²
Neutrino oscillations, proton decay
 Deficit of solar neutrinos
(see Kai Zuber‘s talk)
 Deficit of atmospheric neutrinos
as function of distance and
energy
|m232| = (2.6±0.2) ·10-3 eV2
|m221| = (8.3±0.3) ·10-5 eV2
12 = 33.9º±1.6º
23 = 45º±3º
13 < 9º
 Stringent limits on proton life
time
1990-2000: revisiting the expectations
 Underground detectors, 1000 m², only for young
Supernovae in our Galaxy (Berezinsky)
 New estimates on neutrinos from Supernova remnants and
other galactic sources based on observations with Whipple
and HEGRA
 For supernova remnants, microquasars, extragalactic
sources: need detector of order 1 km³.
 The Waxman-Bahcall bound
 The Mannheim-Protheroe bound
 GRB as sources of cosmic rays and neutrinos
Diffuse Fluxes 2002
This model was downcorrected by a factor
of 20 in 2005.
 bound
MPR bound
WB bound
The ice option
F. Halzen
 1988: Pomerantz workshop,
NSF Science and Technology Center for the
South Pole (A. Westphal, T.Miller, D. Lowder,
B. Price)
 E. Zeller (Kansas) suggests to F. Halzen radiodetection of
neutrinos in Antarctic ice
 1989: attempt of Westphal and Lowder to measure ice
transparency in existing boreholes
 Jan. 89, ICRC, Adelaide: Decide to propose Amanda (B. Price,
D. Lowder, S. Barwick, B. Morse, F. Halzen, A. Watson)
 1990: Morse et al. deploy PMTs in Greenland ice
Nature
Sept 91
South Pole
 1991/91 first small PMTs deployed
 Results consistent with 25 m absorption length
Heaters and pumps
to melt the holes
93/94
40 m
1 km
Catastrophal delay
of light between
strings 20 m away!
(µsec instead of 100 nsec)
2 km
Explanation remnant
bubbles which are
disapppearing with
increasing depth.
Amanda B4
1995: DESY and Stockholm build
~ 100 modules, 86 deployed in
the season 95/96 at 1450-1950 m depth
The DESY crew
B4: first 2 neutrinos 
Drilling
Hot water drilling
AMANDA B10
IceCube
will work !
1 km
96/97 AMANDA - B10
2 km
120 m
NATURE 2001
Skyplot of the
very first 17
Nu candidates
in B10
B10 skyplot
published
in Nature 2001
97/98
 3 long strings
 study deep and shallow
ice for future IceCube
0.02
1 km
Scattering
coefficient
(1/m)
vs. depth
2 km
120 m
0.1
0.5
AMANDA-II
1 km
99/00
2 km
200 m
Ocean Water
AMANDA results

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
δ=90º
Max Significance
δ=54º, α=11.4h
Diffuse fluxes
3.38σ
Point sources
Neutrinos from GRB
WIMP searches
Magnetic Monopoles
0h
24h
Cosmic
rays
SN monitoring
Skymap from 7years AMANDA: no significant excess
….
No significant excess found
The one intriguing coincidence ….
WHIPPLE
Arrival time of
neutrinos from the
direction of the AGN
ES1959+650
Flux of
TeV photons
(arb. units)
3


2
1
0
May
2000
2001
2002
2003
Year
June
July
IceCube Observatory
07/08: 18
06/07: 13
05/06: 8
04/05: 1
08/09: 19 strings
Remaining:
22 IceCube Strings
5 DeepCore Strings
 complete in January 2011
Shadow of the Moon


Absolute pointing  1°
Angular resolution  1°
Downward muons, max. 28° above horizon, median energy of primary parent ~ 30 TeV
Cosmic Rays
0.5°
8 months IceCube 40 strings
90
Large-scale
anisotropy
of downgoing
muons
0
24h
12 TeV
IceCube
-90
90
(40 strings 2008)
anisotropies on the
per-mille scale
24h
0
126 TeV
(skymap in equatorial
coordinates)
-90
Compare to
Northern
hemisphere





Tibet air shower array
Compton-Getting
effect ?
Heliosphere effect ?
Nearby pulsar ?
Interstellar magnetic
field ?
First observation on
Southern hemisphere adds important
piece of information.
Simulation
(Lallement et al.
Science 2005)
MILAGRO
First look above horizon
(IceCube 2007, 22 strings)
PeV-EeV range
Northern hemisphere
Southern hemisphere
Point Sources: The Progress
factor
1000
in 15 years !
Diffuse Fluxes: The Progress
Baikal/
Another
factor
1000 !
Mediterannean projects
NESTOR
(since 1991)
„Amanda-sized“ -- under construction (?)
ANTARES (since 1996)
„Amanda sized“ -- data taking
NEMO:
R&D for km3 project
Since 2003: km3 initiative
KM3NeT
2400m
ANTARES
NEMO
3400m
4100m
NESTOR
NESTOR






1991:
first site studies
1992:
first muon count
1992-2001:
many ocean tests,
build lab and
infrastructure
2000:
cable to site
2003:
deploy first floor.
Cable failure after
a few weeks
Compare to 2000
declared plan:
– deploy full
tower 2003
– deploy 6 more
towers 2005
ANTARES
Installation:
Junction Box - Dec 2002
Line 1
- March 2006
Line 5-1
- Dec 2007
Line 11-12 - May 2008
Antares results
NEMO
R&D for KM3NeT
- 4-floor tower in 2006
- full tower end of 2009
KM3NeT
Recommendations KM3NeT
 2001/02: High Energy Neutrino Astrophysics Panel
–
–
–
–
–
High physics interest
Need km³ scale
Need both hemispheres
No more than 1 Northern detector
Timely formation of Northern hemisphere deep water detector is encouraged
 2008: ApPEC
– The priority project for high energy neutrino astronomy is KM3NeT.
– Encouraged by the significant technical progress of recent years, the support
for working towards KM3NeT is confirmed.
– Resources for a Mediterranean detector should be pooled into a single
optimised design for a large research infrastructure, with installation starting in
2012.
– The sensitivity of KM3NeT must substantially exceed that of all existing
neutrino detectors including IceCube.
KM3NeT





Site
Size
Configuration
Technology
Deployment
2 km
Construction
Data taking
Design decision
…a long march
which has not
yet reached
its end.

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