Automated FRRF measurements provide an alternative means to

Report
Koninklijk
Royal
Netherlands
Nederlands
Institute
Instituut
for Sea
voorResearch
Zeeonderzoek
Automated FRRF measurements provide an
alternative means to obtain seasonal and
annual primary production estimates
Jacco Kromkamp, Greg Silsbe, Jethro Waanders
& Jan Peene
NIOZ is an institute of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO)
1
Partners in PROTOOL
Acknowledgements:
EU-FP7-Env program for financing the
project
Jacco/Greg/Jethro Dave Suggett
Evelyn Lawrenz
Jan Peene
Stefan Simis
Pasi Ylostalo
Rüdiger Röttgers
Ondrej Prasil
Ondrej Komarek
Rodney Forster
Eliza Capuzzo
Denise Smythe-Wright
Diane Purcell/Adrian
Martin Trtilek
Michal Sicner
Rüdiger Heuermann
Karin Munderloh
2
Why PROTOOL (PROductivity TOOLs)
 Understanding aquatic ecosystems is not possible without
knowledge of primary production
 Biomass (chla) is no good measure of primary production
(due to high –but varying - turnover rates)
 Carrying capacity higher trophic levels depend on primary
production, not on chla
 Currently no simple PP method, hampering development of
long term time series of primary production, certainly by
water management agencies
 Active fluorescence techniques (PAM-FRRF) are optical
techniques, so “easy” to automate
 FRRF-based approach can standardize measurements
3
Chl can be measured from space, but
turning this into primary production is risky
(lack of PI-data, uncertainty ~ 100%)
Composite of annual NPP
0
150
300
http://marine.rugers.edu/opp/Production
450 g C/m2/yr
4
Solution: use ships of opportunity and equip it with
automated sensors to measure GPP etc?
 1 year of shipping routes
5
FRRF basics
Rise in F to Fm gives σPSII
9000
8000
Fluorescence
7000
FV
ΔF
6000
Fm
Fm’
Max PSII efficiency
Fm  F0
Fv / Fm 
Fm
5000
Effective PSII efficiency
4000
Fo (proxy for [chla]
3000
dark
HL
2000
0
50
100
150
time (µsec)
200
F / Fm'   PSII 
Fm'  F
Fm'
 Fv/Fm = indicator of physiological condition of the algae
 Relative (!) ETR = PAR x ΔF/Fm’
6
FRRF-basics:
the functional and optical cross sections
 effective = functional PSII cross section:
aPSII
σa PSII
 PSII  aPSII 
kp
k p  k f  kh
*
a
In dark: PSII   PSII  nPSII
PSII  PSI
*
a *ph  aPSII

PSII
7
ETR ≠ C-fixation
NO3O2
NADP CO2-fixation
Fd
QA
QB
P680
P680
PQ
PQH2
4e2H2O
P700
cytb6f
4e- PC
O2
 Linear ETR via PSI to NADPH
 Alternative electron sinks :
 Mehler reaction (water-water cycle)
 NO3 reduction
 PSI cyclic transport
 PSII cycle
 PTOX activity
Investigate Φe,C for
different water bodies to
develop stochastic
prediction model
88
Requirements for PROTOOL:
1. convert ETR into C-fixation
2. integrate ETR of whole water column
over time
ETR
Zp sunset
PP  [chla] 
 [E 
PSII
 nPSII  Φ PSII   e ]
0 sunrise
•Can be measured with FRRF
•R-module to measure [chl], kd (zP),E
•Unknowns at start project:
•Φe,C (mol C/mol electrons) =0.25 mol C/e•nPSII: can now be measured with new Oxborough
sigma-algorithm = 0.002 PSII/chla
9
Algorithms used
K&F algorithm
∆
 =  × ′ ×  ×  × Φ,


2 new algorithms allow, after proper calibration of nPSII (O2flash yields) measurement of absolute ETR
NEW:
Sigma algorithm
Absorption algorithm
(volumetric)


[ ] =
×
 
 ×  ∆

 =
×
×
×
 −   ′ 
10
 Poster Oxborough et al: recent advancements in
the methods used to analyse Fast Repetition
rate Fluorometry (FRRf) data….
Poster Silsbe et al: Highly
resolved measures of
photosynthetic electron
transport in European
coastal waters
11
Sampling stations monitoring
program
Oosterschelde = Eastern Scheldt
Mesotrophic
Marine < 2 PSU
Secchi:3-5m
Westerschelde = Western Scheldt
Eutrophic
Secchi: 2-0.2m
True estuary:
0-30 PSU
12
Fv/Fm as stress indicator
Fv/Fm Eastern Scheldt mouth to east
Date
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
7/1/2010
1/1/2010
7/1/2009
1/1/2009
7/1/2008
1/1/2008
7/1/2007
1/1/2007
7/1/2006
1/1/2006
7/1/2005
1/1/2005
5
10
15
20
25
distance from mouth (storm surge barrier, km)
 Low Fv/Fm nutrient limitation (red arrows) and in winter
13
Eastern Scheldt, station OS1, new algorithm
no calibration for Φe,C (0.25)
-2 -1
PP (mgC m d )
1000
OS2
14C
K&F
Abs
Sigma
100
10
1
1/1/2005
1/1/2006
1/1/2007
1/1/2008
1/1/2009
1/1/2010
1/1/2011
 Some problems with winter values (underestimations), but in
general good agreement
14
All data Eastern Scheldt, Φe,C = 0.25
1000
K&F
Abs
Sigma
K&F fit
Abs fit
Sigma fit
100
10
-2
-1
GPP (mg C m day ) from FRRF data
Eastern Scheldt, all data
1
0.1
0.1
1
10
GPP (mg C m -2 day-1) obtained from
100
14
1000
C-fixation data
15
For the Western Scheldt, Φe,C=0.25
-2 -1
GPP-FRRF (mgC m d )
1000
WS all
100
10
1
K&F
Abs
Sigma
0.1
0.1
1
10
100
1000
GPP-14C (mgC m -2d -1)
16
“calibration” of electron requirement for Cfixation based on comparison of daily water
column primary production: Eastern Scheldt
Seasonality (?) in quantum requirement (QR=1/Φe,C)
17
Next step: use annual GPP for QR and
average QR over all years. Station specific:
example OS2
 QR varies between years for some stations
 K&F algorithms produced too low QR (<4)
18
Estimates of annual primary production
Eastern Scheldt
 Annual GPP >90% accurate for new Oxborough algorithms!!
 “old” K&F algorithm less reliable
19
Quantum requirements Western Scheldt
 K&F algorithm
no clear
seasonality,
but sigma and
absorption
algorithms
show
seasonality
 Lowest QR
April-Sept
 Minimal QR<4
20
Western Scheldt: annual GPP as % 14C-GPP
 Most estimates 75-125% of measured GPP
 Cycle in QR?
 Something odd with station WS4
21
conclusions
 Automated application of FRRF and spectral reflectance
makes automated primary production measurements possible
 FRRF measurements accurately predict seasonal dynamics in
GPP
 Quantum requirements (QR) for C-fixation seem rather
constant (5-7 in main growth season), but higher in winter
(related to low Fv/Fm?).
 QR are similar for each station, but year to year variation
does exist. Reason??? (2006 was odd year in all
measurements, also in Westerschelde)
 More need to be done to understand variability in QRs
 Using autonomous FRRF measurements on SOOPs can
significantly improve global GPP estimates
 Miniaturize for use on gliders
22
Thank you for your attention
suggested reading:
23
Chla is not a good predictor
for primary production
Westerschelde
Oosterschelde
140
140
WS1
WS6
WS14
120
120
100
100
P:B-ratio
P:B-ratio
OS1
OS2
OS8
80
60
40
80
60
40
20
20
0
1991
2001
2006
2007
2008
2009
0
1991
1996
2000
year
2006
2007
2008
2009
year
 Westerschelde estuary: high SPM, eutrophic
 Oosterschelde estuary: low SPM, mesotrophic
24
Map of chl-a derived through continuous reflectance
measurements. The height of the green line is
proportional to the chl-a concentration
25
Project Spectral Reflectance Measurements
High spatial resolution (~100 m) characterization of the optical
properties and its driving constituents in European Coastal waters.
26
The fluorometer
 Different flow through systems:
 direct connection to water inflow
 Via storage tank (for dark acclimation or fixed sample)
27
Automated ETR from flow-through
North Atlantic Cruise (England – Iceland)
Baltic Sea
28
Acknowledgments:
 EU-FP7 program for financing the project
 Jan Peene for assistance with the 14C measurements
 Partners in PROTOOL
Jethro Waanders
Dave Suggett
Evelyn Lawrenz
Stefan Simis
Pasi Ylostalo
Rüdiger Röttgers
Ondrej Prasil
Ondrej Komarek
Rodney Forster
Eliza Capuzzo
Denise Smythe-Wright
Martin Trtilek
Michal Sicner
Rüdiger Heuermann
Karin Munderloh
29
PSICAM (point source integrated cavity
absorption meter)
Data Rüdiger Röttgers, HZG
30
Example: using a priori assumptions (4
electrons/C and nPSII=0.002 units/mg chla
Central
OS2
1000
North Sea
OS5
1000
OS9
100
100
10
10
FRRF
14C
FRRF
14C
 FRRF accurately captures seasonal dynamics and C-fixation
estimates are close to measured one, even using a priori
assumptions
1/7/2008
1/4/2008
1/1/2008
1/10/2007
1/7/2007
1/12/2006
1/4/2007
1/9/2006
1/6/2006
1/3/2006
1/12/2005
1/9/2005
1/6/2005
1/1/2010
1/3/2005
1/1/2009
1/1/2008
1/1/2007
1
1/1/2006
1
1/1/2005
daily GPP (mg C m-2 d-1)
north arm
31
 Good performance in both marine and freshwater areas
32
7/1/2010
1/1/2010
14C
K&F
Abs
Sigma
7/1/2009
1/1/2009
7/1/2008
1/1/2008
100
7/1/2007
-2 -1
WS1
1/1/2007
0.1
7/1/2006
14C
K&F
Abs
Sigma
1/1/2006
10
GPP (mgC m d )
100
7/1/2010
1/1/2010
7/1/2009
1/1/2009
7/1/2008
1
1/1/2008
7/1/2007
1000
1/1/2007
7/1/2006
1/1/2006
-2 -1
GPP (mgC m d )
Western Scheldt, Φe,C=0.25
1000
WS14
10
1
0.1
Estuaries
worldwide
• Linear relationship
between PP and
biomass
macrobenthos
Herman et al. 1999; Kemp et al. 2005
33

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