Leadership Chapter 1

Report
Chapter 1 - Introduction
Leadership
Chapter 1 - Introduction
Northouse, 4th edition
Chapter 1 - Introduction
Overview
 Conceptualizing Leadership
 Leadership Definition
 Components of the Definition
 Followers & Leadership
Chapter 1 - Introduction
Conceptualizing Leadership
Some definitions view leadership as:
The focus of group processes
A personality perspective
An act or behavior
In terms of the power relationship
between leaders & followers
An instrument of goal achievement
A skills perspective
Chapter 1 - Introduction
Leadership Defined
Leadership
is a process whereby an
individual influences a group of
individuals to achieve a
common goal.
Chapter 1 - Introduction
Components Central to the
Phenomenon of Leadership
Leadership




Is a process
Involves influence
Occurs within a group context
Involves goal attainment
Leaders
 Are not above followers
 Are not better than followers
 Rather, an interactive relationship with followers
Chapter 1 - Introduction
LEADERSHIP
DESCRIBED
 Trait vs. Process Leadership
 Assigned vs. Emergent Leadership
 Leadership & Power
 Leadership & Coercion
 Leadership & Management
Chapter 1 - Introduction
Trait vs. Process Leadership
Trait definition of leadership:
Certain individuals
have special innate
or inborn
characteristics or
qualities that
differentiate them
from nonleaders.
– Resides in select
people
– Restricted to those
with inborn talent
LEADER
Leadership
• Height
• Intelligence
• Extroversion
• Fluency
• Other Traits
FOLLOWERS
Chapter 1 - Introduction
Trait vs. Process Leadership
The process definition of Leadership:
 Leadership is a
property or set of
properties possessed
in varying degrees by
different people (Jago,
1982).
LEADER
Leadership
(Interaction)
– Observed in leadership
behaviors
– Can be learned
FOLLOWERS
Chapter 1 - Introduction
Assigned vs. Emergent Leadership
Assigned
Leadership based
on occupying a
position within an
organization
–
–
–
–
Team leaders
Plant managers
Department heads
Directors
Emergent
 An individual perceived by
others as the most influential
member of a group or
organization regardless of the
individual’s title
– Emerges over time through
communication behaviors
 Verbal involvement
 Being informed
 Seek other’s opinions
 Being firm but not rigid
Chapter 1 - Introduction
Leadership & Power
Power
The capacity or
potential to influence.
– Ability to affect others’
beliefs, attitudes &
actions
Bases of Social Power
French & Raven (1959)
 Referent
 Expert
 Legitimate
 Reward
Power is a relational
concern for both leaders
and followers.
 Coercive
Chapter 1 - Introduction
Leadership & Power
Five
Bases
of
Power
Chapter 1 - Introduction
Leadership & Power
Five Bases of Power
 REFERENT POWER – Based on followers’ identification
and liking for the leader.
– ex. A schoolteacher who is adored by her students has referent
power.
 EXPERT POWER – Based on followers’ perceptions of
the leader’s competence.
– ex. A tour guide who is knowledgeable about a foreign country
has expert power.
 LEGITIMATE POWER – Associated with having status or
formal job authority.
– ex. A judge who administers sentences in the courtroom exhibits
legitimate power
Chapter 1 - Introduction
Leadership & Power
Five Bases of Power
 REWARD POWER – Derived from having the capacity to
provide rewards to others.
– ex. A supervisor who gives rewards to employees who work hard
is using reward power.
 COERCIVE POWER – Derived from having the capacity
to penalize or punish others.
– ex. A coach who sits players on the bench for being late to
practice is using coercive power.
Chapter 1 - Introduction
Leadership & Power
Types and Bases of Power
Position Power
 Power derived from
office or rank in an
organization
– Legitimate
– Reward
– Coercive
Personal Power
Power is
influence derived
from being seen
as likable &
knowledgeable
– Referent
– Expert
Chapter 1 - Introduction
Leadership & Coercion
Coercion
Involves
 Use of force to effect
change
 Influencing others to do
something via
manipulation of rewards
and penalties in the
work environment
 Use of threats,
punishments, &
negative rewards
Examples of Coercive
Leaders
Adolf Hitler
Jim Jones
David Koresh
Power & restraint
used to force
followers to
engage in extreme
behavior
Chapter 1 - Introduction
Leadership & Management
Kotter (1990)
Management
Activities
“Produces order
and consistency”
Leadership
Activities
“Produces change
and movement”
• Planning & Budgeting
• Establishing direction
• Organizing & Staffing
• Aligning people
• Controlling & Problem Solving
• Motivating / Inspiring
Major activities of management & leadership
are played out differently; BUT, both are essential
for an organization to prosper.
Leadership & Management
Chapter 1 - Introduction
Kotter (1990)
Major activities
of management
and leadership
are played out
differently;
BUT, both are
essential for an
organization to
prosper.
Chapter 1 - Introduction
Leadership & Management
Zaleznik (1977)
Managers
Leaders
Unidirectional Authority
Multidirectional Influence
• Are reactive
• Prefer to work with
people on problem
solving
• Low emotional
involvement
• Are emotionally active
& involved
• Shape ideas over
responding to them
• Act to expand
available options
• Change the way people
think about what is
possible

similar documents