Resource Management

Report
Resource Management in the Virtual World
Singapore, Q1 2013
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Topic
 How Resource Management works in vSphere 5
• Server Pool
• Storage Pool
• Network Pool
 Architecting Pools of resources in large environment
• Server Pool
• Storage Pool
 Monitoring Pools of resources in large environment
• Performance monitoring
• Compliance monitoring
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Resource Pool: CPU and RAM
The “Resource Pool” that most of us know.
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Server Resource Pool: Quick Intro
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Server Resource Pool: Quick Intro
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Server Resource Pool
 Cluster means you no longer need to think of individual ESXi host
• No longer need to map 1000 VM to 100 ESX
 What it is
• Grouping of ESX CPU/RAM in a cluster, as if they are 1 giant computer.
• They are not, obviously, as a VM can’t span across 2 hosts at a given time.
• A few apps might be ESXi aware, and do their own co-ordination. Example is vFabric EM4J (Elastic Memory
for Java). But this is a separate topic altogether 
• A logical grouping of CPU and RAM only
• No Disk and Network
• Cluster must be DRS-enabled to create resource pools
 What it is not
• A way to organise VM. Use folder for this.
• A way to segregate admin access for VM. Use folder for this.
Example: a cluster has 8 ESX host. Each has 2 cores.
So total is 48 GHz
VI-3 Cluster of
[CPU]
8 * (3.0Ghz * 2)
[RAM]
8 * 16,384MB
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Root Resource Pool
[CPU]
49,152Mhz
[RAM] 131,072MB
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Child Resource Pools
 A slice of the parent RP
 Child RP can exceed the capacity of the root resource pool
 Used to allocate capacity to different consumers and to enable delegated
administration
RP1-1 – Limits
[CPU] 14,745Mhz
[RAM] 39,320MB
RP1-2 – Limits
[CPU] 9,831Mhz
[RAM] 26,216MB
RP2 – Limits
[CPU] 8,096Mhz
[RAM] 24,576MB
RP1 – Limits
[CPU] 24,576Mhz
[RAM] 65,536MB
VI-3 Cluster of
8 * (3.0Ghz * 2)
[CPU]
8 * 16,384MB
[RAM]
8
RP3 – Limits
[CPU] 16,192Mhz
[RAM] 40,960MB
Root Resource Pool
49,152Mhz
[CPU]
[RAM] 131,072MB
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RP Settings
 Can control CPU and RAM only
• Disk is done at per VM level.
• Network is done at per vDS port group level.
 Shares is mandatory
• Can’t set it to blank
 Shares is always relative
• Relative to other VM in same Resource Pool or Cluster
 Reservation
• Impact the cluster Slot Size. Use sparingly.
• Can’t overcommit. Notice the triangle
 Take note of “MHz”
• Not aware of CPU generation
• 2 GHz Xeon 5600 is considered as same speed as
2 GHz Xeon 5100.
 No such thing as “unlimited” in Limit
• A VM can’t go beyond its Configured value.
• A VM with 2 GB RAM won’t run as if it has 128 GB
(assume ESXi has 128 GB)
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Configuration, Reservation, Limit
Configured
For resources above
“Limit” - you will
never gain access
• The amount presented to BIOS of the VM.
• Hence a VM will never exceed its configured amount as it
can’t see beyond it. ESX RAM is irrelevant.
• A Windows VM configured with 8 GB. Windows will start
swaping to its own swap file in its NTFS drive if it reach 8
GB.
Limit
 “Configured” = amount configured for the VM
It’s available for someone else’s
reserved utilization (it can be “stolen”
from you)
down the CPU. It just give the VM less CPU cycle.
 Reservation
• Define the minimum amount of a resource that a consumer
is guaranteed to receive – if asked for
• Reserved capacity that is not used is available to other
consumers for them to use – but not reserve
• If a consumer asks for reserved capacity that has been
“loaned” to another consumer, it is reclaimed and given to
satisfy the reservation
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Reservation
 Limit
• A virtual property. Does not exist in physical server.
• Not visible by VM.
• Can be used to force slow down a VM. ESXi does not clock
For resources between “Reservation”
and “Limit” - if you ask for it, you get it
if it’s available
Resource usage here is guaranteed –
if you ask for it, you get it.
If you don’t use it, it’s available for
someone else’s unreserved utilization
(it can be “loaned out”, but is reclaimed
on request)
VM-level Reservation
 CPU reservation:
•
•
•
•
•
Guarantees a certain level of resources to a VM
Influences the admission control (PowerOn)
CPU reservation isn’t as bad as often referenced:
CPU reservation doesn’t claim the CPU when VM is idle (is refundable)
CPU reservation caveats: CPU reservation does not always equal priority
• VM uses processors and “Reserved VM” is claiming those CPUs = ResVM has to wait until threads / tasks are finished
• Active threads can’t be “de-schedules” if you do so = Blue Screen / Kernel Panic
 Memory reservation
• Guarantees a certain level of resources to a VM
• Influences the admission control (PowerOn)
• Memory reservation is as bad as often referenced. “Non-Refundable” once allocated.
• Windows is zeroing out every bit of memory during startup…
 Memory reservation caveats:
• Will drop the consolidation ratio
• May waste resources (idle memory cant’ be reclaimed)
• Introduces higher complexity (capacity planning)
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Resource Pool shares is not “cascaded” down to each VM.
 The more VM you put into a Resource Pool, the less each get.
• The pool is not per VM. It is for the entire pool.
• The only way to give the VM guarantee is to set the pool for each VM. This has admin overhead
as it’s not easily visible.
VM3
VM4
Pool 1
Pool 1 VM5
VM2
Pool
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Pool
VM6
Pool 2
Pool 2
VM1
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Resource Pool: A common mistake…
 Sys Admin created 3 resource pool called Tier 1, Tier 2, Tier 3.
• The follow the relative High, Normal, Low share.
• So Tier 1 gets 4x the shares of Tier 3.
 Place 10 VM on each Tier.
• 30 total in the cluster.
• Everything is fine for now.
• Tier 1 does get 4x the share.
 Since Tier 1 performs better, place 10 more VM on Tier 1.
• So Tier 1 now has 20 VM
 Result: Tier 1 performance drops.
• The 20 VM are fighting the same share.
The above problem will only happens if there is
contention. If the physical ESXi host has enough
resource to satisfy all 40 VMs, then Shares do not kick in.
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Implication of poorly design resource pool
The cluster has 2 resource pools and a few VM outside these 2 resource pools.
“Test 1” resource pool is given 4x the shares. But it has 8 VM. So 26% / 8 = ~3% per VM.
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Per VM settings
Screen is based on Sphere 5 and VM hardware version 8
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Shares Value and Shares
Shares can be “Normal” but the value can differ from VM to VM.
Use script to set all the values to identical amount.
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Example
VM 1
VM 2
VM 3
ESXi Hypervisor
VM 1:
VM 2:
VM 3:
Memory size: 4GB
Reservation: 0
Limit: unlimited
Shares: 3000
Idle memory: 0
Memory size: 4 GB
Reservation: 0
Limit: unlimited
Shares: 1000
Idle memory: 0
Memory size: 2 GB
Reservation: 2 GB
Limit: unlimited
Shares: 1000
Idle memory: 0
Entitlement: 3 GB
Entitlement: 1 GB
Entitlement: 2 GB
6 GB pRAM
Total for 3 VM = 10 GB.
But ESX only has 6 GB.
VM 3 will get 2 GB, as it has reservation.
ESX has 4 GB left.
VM 1 will get 3000/4000 shares, which is 3/4 * 4 GB = 3 GB
VM 2 will get 1000/4000, which is 1/4 * 4 GB = 1 GB.
VM 2 performance drops.
VM 3 performance not affected at all
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Resource Pool: Best Practices
 For Tier 1 cluster, where all the VMs are critical to business
• Architect for Availability first, Performance second.
• Translation: Do not over-commit.
• So resource pool, reservation, etc are immaterial as there is enough for everyone.
• But size each VM accordingly. No oversizing as it might slow down.
 For Tier 3 cluster, use carefully, or don’t use at all.
• Tier 3 = overcommit.
• So use Reservation sparingly, even at VM level.
• This guarantees resource, so it impacts the cluster slot size.
• Naturally, you can’t boot additional VM if your guarantee is fully used
• Take note of extra complexity in performance troubleshooting.
• Use as a mechanism to reserve at “group of VMs” level.
• If Department A pays for half the cluster, then creating an RP with 50% of cluster resource will guarantee them the resource,
in the event of contention. They can then put as many VM as they need.
• But as a result, you cannot overcommit at cluster level, as you have guaranteed at RP level.
 Do not configure high CPU or RAM, then use Limit
•
•
•
•
E.g. configure with 4 vCPU, then use limit to make it “2” vCPU
It can result in unpredictable performance as Guest OS does not know.
High CPU or high RAM has higher overhead.
Limit is used when you need to force slow down a VM. Using Shares won’t achieve the same result
 Don’t put VM and RP as “sibling” or same level
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Resource Pool: Disk and Network
The “Resource Pool” that most of us don’t give enough attention.
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Disk is set at individual VM, not Resource Pool
Default Shares Value is 1000.
This is at Datastore level,
which may span across cluster.
You can set Limit, but not
Reservation.
NFS Datastore can even span
across vCenter (use case:
read-only templates and ISO
images)
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Reviewing Disk Resource Pool
Shares is at Datastore level. Just like “Server” Resource Pool, the more VM you put, the less each VM.
You can view at Cluster level (which give view across datastores from this single cluster). This does not
tell the whole picture as the datastores may span across clusters.
You cannot view at individual ESXi level if it is part of a cluster
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Viewing at Datastore level
Shares is at Datastore level. Just like “Server” Resource Pool, the more VM you put, the less each VM.
You can view at Cluster level (which give view across datastores from this single cluster). This does not
tell the whole picture as the datastores may span across clusters. Do no span a datastore across “data
center” as you can only see 1 DC at a time.
You cannot view at individual ESXi level if it is part of a cluster.
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Pre-requisite: Storage IO Control
As a Datastore is just a logical construct, it has no physical limit by itself. The limit is on underlying LUN or
path. To enable sharing, enable Storage I/O Control
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Enabling Storage I/O Control
Not enabled by default
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Storage DRS
 Finally, a “cluster” for storage
• Differences
• VM disks won’t move to another DS in the event of datastore or LUN failure
• Has concept of storage tiering.
• Similarity
• No need to specify individual datastore
• Affinity and Anti-Affinity rules
• Load balance among datastores, although in hours/days and not 5 minutes.
 New feature in vSphere 5
 More details here.
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Network Resource Pool
Tenant 1 VMs
Tenant 2 VMs
VR
vMotion
Mgmt
FT
NFS
iSCSI
Server Admin
vSphere Distributed Portgroup
Teaming Policy
vSphere Distributed Switch
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Traffic
Shares
Limit (Mbps)
802.1p
vMotion
5
150
1
Mgmt
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NFS
10
iSCSI
10
2
FT
60
--
VR
10
--
VM
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Tenant 1
5
--
Tenant 2
15
--
Shaper
Scheduler
Scheduler
-250
2000
Load Based
Teaming
Limit enforcement
per team
--
Shares enforcement
per uplink
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Network Resource Pool
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Network Resource Pool
 New feature in vSphere 5.
 Can set shares and Limit, but not Reservation.
 Unlike CPU/RAM, there is no reservation for Disk and
Network
• Network & Disk is not something that is completely
controlled by ESX.
• Array is serving multiple ESX or Cluster, and even non
ESX.
• Network has switches, router, firewall, etc which will
impact performance.
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Sample Architecture
This shows an example for Cloud for ~2000 VM. It also uses Active/Passive data centers.
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Sample Architecture
Primary Data Center (Active)
vCenter 1
Confidential Cluster
Management VMs
for Desktops
reside in
IT Cluster
With LinkedMode.
With SRM integration
Standalone
vCenter 2
Tier 1 Clusters
Tier 2 Clusters
Special Clusters
vCenter 3
Tier 3 Clusters
IT Cluster
Desktop
Cluster N
Desktop
Cluster 1
8 ESXi
SAN Fabric
NFS LAN
NFS Storage
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FC Storage
NFS LAN
Tier 1 Storage
Tier 2 Storage
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Tape back up
NFS Storage
Tier 3 Storage
IT Cluster
8 ESXi
The need for IT Cluster
Large Cloud
 Special purpose cluster
• Running all the IT VMs used to manage the
virtual DC or provide core services
• The Central Management will reside here too
• Separated for ease for management &
security
This separation keeps
VMware
vCenter (for Server Cloud)
vCenter Heart-beat
vCenter Update Manager
Symantec AppHA Server
vCloud Director
Storage
Storage Mgmt tool (may need physical RDM
to get fabric info)
Network
Network Management Tool
Nexus 1000V Manager (VSM)
Core Infra
MS AD 1
MS AD 2
Syslog server
File Server (FTP Server)
Advance vDC Services
Site Recovery Manager + DB
Chargeback + DB
Agentless AV
Object-based Firewall
Security
Security Management Server
vShield Manager
Admin
Admin client (1 per Sys Admin)
VMware Converter
vMA
vCenter Orchestrator
Application Mgmt
App Dependancy Manager
Management
vCenter Ops + DB
Help Desk
Desktop
View Managers + DB
ThinApp Update Server
vCenter (for Desktop Cloud)
Business Cluster clean,
“strictly for business”.
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3 Tier Server resource pool
 Create 3 clusters
• The hosts can be identical.
Tier
# Host
Node Spec?
Failure
Tolerance
MSCS
#VM
Monitoring
Remarks
Tier 1
5
(always)
Always
Identical
2 hosts
Yes
Max 18 per
cluster
Application level.
Extensive Alert
Only for Critical App.
No Resource Overcommit.
Tier 2
4–8
(likely 8)
2 variations
1 host
Limited
Max 70 VM.
10 per (N-1)
Tier 3
6–8
(likely 8)
3 variations
1 host
No
Max 105 VM
15 per (N-1)
App can be vMotion to Tier 1
during critical run
Infrastructure level
Minimal Alert.
 Each project then “leases” vCPU and GB
• Not GHz, as speed may vary.
• Not using Resource Pool, as we can’t control the #VM in the pool
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Resource Overcommit
3 Tier pools of storage
 Create 3 Tiers of Storage.
• This become the type of Storage Pool provided to VM
• Paves for standardisation
• Choose 1 size for each Tier. Keep it consistent.
• 20% free capacity for VM swap files, snapshots, logs, thin volume growth, and storage vMotion (inter tier).
• Use Thin Provisioning at array level, not ESX level.
• Separate Production and Non Production
• VMDK larger than 1 TB will be provisioned as RDM. Virtual-compatibility mode used.
 Example
Tier
Interface
IOPS
Latency
RAID
RPO
RTO
Size
Limit
Snapshot
# VM
1
FC
>4000
10 ms
10
1 hour
1 hour
1 TB
70%
Yes
~10 VM.
EagerZeroedThick
2
FC
>2000
15 ms
5
4 hour
4 hour
2 TB
80%
No
~20 VM. Normal Thick
3
iSCSI
>1000
20 ms
5
8 hour
8 hour
3 TB
80%
No
~30 VM. Normal Thick
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Mapping: Cluster - Datastore
 Always know which cluster mounts what datastores
• Keep the diagram simple. Not too many info. The idea is to have a mental picture that you can remember.
• If your diagram has too many lines, too many datastores, too many clusters, then it maybe too complex.
Create a Pod when such thing happens. Modularisation can be good.
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Performance counters: CPU
Same counters are shown for
other period, because no real
time counters.
It does not make sense to see
real time.
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Performance counters: RAM
counters not shown: Memory Capacity Usage
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Memory: Consume vs Active
 Consumed = how much physical RAM a VM has allocated to it
• It does not mean the VM is actively using it. It can be idle page.
 Two types of memory overcommitment
Mapped to pRAM
• “Configured” memory overcommitment
• (Sum of VMs’ configured memory size) / host’s mem.capacity.usable*
• This is what is usually meant by “memory overcommitment”
Hypervisor
• “Active” memory overcommitment
• (Sum of VMs’ mem.capacity.usage*) / host’s mem.capacity.usable*
 Impact of overcommitment
• “Configured” memory overcommitment > 1
• zero to negligible VM performance degradation
• “Active” memory overcommitment ≈ 1
• very high likelihood of VM performance degradation!
*Only available in vSphere 5.0. But net effect is the same.
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consumed
Configured Memory Overcommitment
Parts of idle and free memory
not in physical RAM due to
reclamation
VM 1
free
VM 2
idle
active
free
VM 3
idle
active
free
idle
active
Hypervisor
All VMs’ active memory stays resident in physical RAM,
allowing for maximum VM performance
Entitlement >= demand for all VMs [good]
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Active Memory Overcommitment
No idle and free memory
in physical RAM
VM 1
VM 2
active
VM 3
active
active
Hypervisor
Some VM active memory not in physical RAM,
which will lead to VM performance degradation!
Entitlement < demand for one or more VMs [bad]
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Example
 Notice that Active is lower than Consumed and Limit.
• VM was doing fine.
Active
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Limit
Consumed
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VM is fighting with ESX for
memory
vSphere and RAM
 Below is a typical picture.
 Most VMware Admin will conclude that ESX is running out of RAM.
• Time to buy new RAM
• This is misleading. It is showing memory.consumed, not memory.active counter.
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vCenter Operation and RAM
 Same ESX. vCenter Ops shows 26%.
 vCenter Ops is showing the right data
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Performance Monitoring
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Global view
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Thank You
And have fun in the pool!
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© 2009 VMware Inc. All rights reserved

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