Dermatology in Individuals with SKIN OF COLOR Kathleen O’Hanlon, M.D. Professor, Family & Comm. Health JCESOM/Marshall University Huntington, WV Goals of this Presentation • Discuss normal variations in skin of color • Review skin disorders that are more common among individuals with skin of color • Discuss skin disorders that appear differently in individuals with skin of color • Review dermatologic conditions in infants and children with skin of color Defining Skin of Color • 2000 NIH Conference struggled with the definition as it encompasses individuals of various races and ethnicity • Includes Blacks, Asians, Hispanics, Latinos (all increasing segments of U.S. population) • Fitzpatrick skin classification system or objective color measurement devices are useful, but have limitations Taylor SC. Cutis 2002; 69:435 Fitzpatrick Skin Typing Normal Variations in Individuals with Skin of Color Pigmentary Demarcation Lines • PDLs are also known as Futcher’s Lines or Voight’s Lines • Type A PDLs are the abrupt transition between light and dark skin on the anterior portion of both arms • Type B PDLs are on the posterior legs • Type C, most common in AA and Latino children, is vertical hypopig. over sternum • Lesions require no clinical intervention Pigmentary Demarcation Lines PDL Type C Inherited as autosomal dominant Incidence 70% in prepubertal AA children Incidence is 3040% in AA adults Less noticeable w age PDLs continued … • About 75% of African Americans have at least 1 demarcation line; believed to be due to arrest of migration planes of melanocytes • Lines are more common in AA women, Hispanic women and PG women. 4% Japanese. Rarely in Caucasians. • Lines typically occur in 5 recognized areas: – – – – – Anterolateral upper arms Posteromedial lower legs Hypopigmentation in the presternal area Posteromedial trunk to spine From the clavicle to the nipple Longitudinal Melanonychia • Longitudinal pigmented nail bands commonly found in individuals with skin of color • The number of nails affected, and the degree of pigmentation tends to increase with age • More common in darkly pigmented individuals • The degree of pigment is uniform longitudinally, but may vary transversely Melanonychia Longitudinal …. Transverse … Longitudinal Melanonychia cont’d. • Main goal for primary care physicians is to exclude acral-lentiginous melanoma (ALM), the most common melanoma type in African Americans & Hispanics • Biopsy: those >6 mm wide, solitary (symmetrical involvement favors benign), dark or with signif. color variation, and those assoc’d with nail deformity or extension to the surrounding skin Ethnic Skin. Mosby. , 1998. So … Benign Acral Lentiginous Melanoma Wide band that extends length of nail Another example … Palmar Crease Hyperpigmentation • Palmar crease pigmentation commonly encountered on the lighter skin of the palms in individuals with skin of color • Degree of pigmentation in the creases parallels the overall darkness of the skin Palmar Crease Hyperpigmentation Palmar Crease Punctate Keratoses & Pits • Conical, hyperkeratotic papules or plugs in creases that evolve into pits once removed • Keratoses and pits common in African American adults, but not in children • Prior reports of a link with internal malignancy or manual labor appear unfounded • Treatment aimed at hyperkeratoses can be helpful (salicylic a., tretinoin, …), but no rx is required. Hsu S. Am Fam Physician 2001; 64: 475. Punctate Keratoses/Pits Oral Hyperpigmentation • Common in both infants and adults; incidence probably >75% of AA; also common in Asians • Hyperpigmentation is found most often on the gingivae, but also occurs on the buccal mucosa, hard palate and tongue • Pigment usually symmetric but may be patchy, often parallels degree of skin color Gingivae Hyperpigmentation Oral Hyperpigmentation Plantar Pigmentation • Asymptomatic, hyperpigmented macules commonly encountered on the plantar surface of AA individuals • Darker-skinned individuals more commonly affected • Pigmented areas usually multiple, patchy, with irregular borders • Other Dx’ic considerations: post-inflamm. hyperpig., tinea, 2ndary syphilis, and arsenic keratoses Rosen T. Atlas of Black Dermatology, 1981. 16. Plantar Pigmentation Common Skin Disorders Appearing Differently in Individuals with Skin of Color What is this inflammatory skin disorder on the face? Also Common on Ears and Neck Discoid Lupus Erythematosus • Chronic inflammatory disorder which occurs twice as often in females • Peak age 35 – 45 yrs old • Begins as localized, edematous erythematous plaques which spread outward on sunexposed skin • DLE only occurs in about 15% of patients with SLE (may precede, appear simultaneously or follow development of SLE) Rodnan GT. Primer on Rheumatic Diseases. 8th ed. Most lesions develop central hypopig. and atrophy. Well estab’d lesions are rimmed with peripheral hyperpig. Can be quite disfiguring d/t scarring and alopecia Lichen Planus • Papulosquamous dis. of unknown etiology • Typical lesion is polygonal, shiny, flat-topped, and “violaceous” • PIH may be present and persistent • Sites of predilection include wrists, ankles, penis and lumbar area • Has been associated with Hepatitis B and C Lesions can be Purple, Brown or Black in SOC Lichen Planus Lichen Planus Genital LP Oral Lichen Planus Wickham’s striae – white, lacey network on the buccal mucosa; more common in Caucasions Oral Lichen Planus Sarcoidosis • Systemic disorder wh produces granulomas in mult. tissues, skin involvement in 25% • Often presents w bilat. hilar adenopathy, pulmo. infiltrates, and skin or eyelid lesions • 10X higher incidence in African Americans • 2 female:1 male ratio • Skin changes include papules, plaques, scarlike changes – appearing over several months E. Nodosum – Most Common Skin Manifestation of Sarcoidosis Red tender nodules on Extensor surfaces Erythema may again be difficult to appreciate in SOC Sarcoidosis – Facial & Eyelid Lesions Dx estab’d by histologic evidence of noncaseating granulomas – Biopsy! Cutaneous Manifestations Highly Variable in African Americans • • • • • • Lesions can be annular Lesions can be ichthyotic Lesions can be ulcerative Lesions can be hypopigmented macules Scarring and alopecia can occur Intralesional steroids are mainstay of rx Johnson BL. Ethnic Skin. Mosb y. 1998 Annular, hypopigmented Ulcerated Ichthyosis Lupus Pernio can be another skin manifestation of Sarcoidosis Clusters of firm, raised, glistening violaceous papules on alar border of nose, lips and cheeks Can give nose a bulbous appearance Can appear on ears, fingers, and knees Saboor SA. Br J Hosp Med 1992; 48: 293. Vitiligo Face Perioral and ocular Vitiligo • Probably autoimmune disorder (autoantibodies directed against melanocysts) affecting 1-2% of the world’s population • Most common sites of involvement include the hands, feet, genitalia and face – can be very striking in SOC • Can affect a dermatome or an entire extremity • Sudden pigment loss can follow a sunburn • Typically starts in 1st-3rd decades; 25% by age 10; often in pp with +FH Barrett C, Whitton M. Interventions for Vitiligo. Cochrane Skin Group. Cochrane Protocol. Issue 2, 2003. Oxford: Update Software. Vitiligo Cosmetic camouflage, if <10% skin involvement high dose topical steroids may halt the spread & encourage repigmentation; PUVA (oral or topical psoralens & UVA radiation), and cognitive behavioral rx for psycho-social effects. Sunblock mandatory. Nordlund JJ. Dermatol Clinics 1993; 11:27. Tinea Versicolor • Chronic, superficial fungal infx (Pityrosporum obiculare ) (aka Malassezia furfur) • Depigmentation caused by tyrosinase inhibitory activity & toxic melanocyte effect of the acids produced • Hypo- or hyperpigmented macules that coalesce into larger patches • Common on upper trunk, neck, upper exts. (areas w active sebaceous glands – so mostly in teens & adults ) • Worse in heat/humidity • Without rx the disorder can be chronic TV – macules that coalesce into larger patches Hyperpigmented … … or Hypopigmented TV on the Face What do you find on KOH prep? For active infection, look for presence of scale & a + KOH. Hyper- or hypo-pigmentation can persist for months after rx so not, alone, indicative of an active process. Rx of T. Versicolor Topical Oral • Selsun Blue Shampoo is often advised but has not been studied (1%) • Ketaconazole (Nizoral) 2% Shampoo – • Itraconazole (Sporanox) 200mg/d X 7 d OR as a 400mg sgl dose • Fluconazole (Diflucan) 300mg/once wk for about 3 doses OR as a 400mg sgl dose • Oral “azole’s” require good liver function • Ketaconazole NO longer recomm’d d/t rare liver tox – Apply for 5min qd X 3 – Px: Apply for 10min./mo. UpToDate.com. 2014. Psoriasis • Papulosquamous dis. less common in AAs (0.1% - 1.4% compared to 2% in caucasions) • Typical location (flexor surfaces ), silver scale, and raised plaques allow for the dx • Erythema often obscured in dark skin • PIH common & persistent • Predilection for elbows, knees, lumbosacral, scalp, genitalia and nails. Psoriasis • Papulosquamous dis. less common in AAs (0.1% - 1.4% compared to 2% in Caucasians) • Typical location (flexor surfaces ), silver scale, and raised plaques allow for the dx • Erythema often obscured in dark skin • PIH common & persistent • Predilection for elbows, knees, lumbosacral, scalp, skin folds, genitalia and nails. Psoriasis Guttate Plaque Psoriasis Scalp Intertriginous Not all skin fold rashes are candidal Psoriasis Skin Disorders More Common in Skin of Color Melasma • Common, benign symmetric facial hyperpigmentation primarily in women • Often due to sun or hormonal exposure in pregnancy or with OCP use • Usually lasts for several years • Combination tx advocated: 2% (OTC) or 4% hydroquinone, tretinoin (0.1%), azelaic acid 20% (rx often unsatisfactory) • Strict sun avoidance also helpful Salim A, Rengifo M, Cuervo LG, Weeed J, Vincent S. Interventions for melasma. Cochrane Skin Group. Cochrane Protocol. Issue 2, 2003. Oxford: Update Software. Melasma Postinflammatory Hyperpigmentation • Dark patches occur at sites of prior inflammation; darkly complected individuals experience more • Both epidermal and dermal pigmentary reactions are noted • GENERAL RULE: It is easier to prevent hyperpigmentation than to treat it Inflammatory Diseases Causing Hyperpigmentation • • • • • Acne vulgaris Folliculitis Eczema Tinea Impetigo • • • • Drug eruptions Lichen planus Psoriasis Lichen simplex chronicus • Trauma (scratches, abrasions …) Acne –induced PIH Trauma-induced PIH Keloids • Shiny, hyperpigmented, raised, hard, nodular tumors; by definition they extend beyond the borders of a wound • Benign, excessive reaction to trauma • Occur with greatest frequency in the second and third decade • Most common sites are the earlobes (esp. posterior), upper back, midchest and shoulders Keloid Scar Keloids cont’d • Most widely recognized skin disorder in individuals with skin of color (15-20 X’s higher Incidence than in light toned skin) • Can be differentiated from hypertrophic scars by their extension from the wound and reaction to steroid injection • Rx modalities include: surgery , cryo, and steroid injxs Earlobe Keloids Anterior Posterior Prevent When You Can • • • • • • Avoid nonessential surgery High recurrence rates Meticulous sterile technique Minimize skin tension Ab rx if secondary infection Perioperative steroid injx (add triamcinolone to Lidocaine 1% diluted to 2.5-5mg/ml) Acne Keloidalis Nuchae • Deep, follicular inflammatory process most commonly located in the nuchal region (nape) • Condition practically unique to African Amers. • Tightly coiled hairs are involved in the pathogenesis: razor-shaved hair ends may curve back toward the skin & re-enter the epidermis, causing a foreign body rx • Ingrown hairs, papules & pustules, alopecia & even large nodules may result Acne Keloidalis Nuchae cont’d • Despite the name, lesion is NOT acne or keloid • Sxs include burning, itching, purulent drainage, and slowly growing nodules • Mostly affects men age 15 – 28 • Early on, conservative derm tx may hold it in check (avoid dble-edged razors, systemic abs) • With lg, well-estab’d lesions wide excision with primary closure advocated Pathogenesis Acne Keloidalis Nuchae Acne Keloidalis Nuchae lesion requiring excision Pseudofolliculitis Barbae • Irritant dermatitis found in 45% of AA men • Same Pathogenesis – closely shaved coiled facial hairs have reentered the skin of the face & neck • The combination of aberrantly growing hairs and shaved fragments left in the skin causes a foreign body reaction • Areas can become secondarily infected “Razor Bumps” Management of Pseudofolliculitis Barbae • Refrain from shaving for 1 month; skincleansing sponges provide gentle hair traction to decrease “ingrown hairs” • Resume shaving with electric razor • A magnifying mirror can be helpful in identifying looped hairs; use a needle to pull out the ingrown tip • Oral or topical antibiotics can be used if there is evidence of infection Williams DF. Consultant 1998; 38: 189. Sponging can add traction to help prevent ingrown hairs Of Possible Benefit … • Chemical depilatories – Eflornithine (Vaniqa) • Electrolysis – to lessen density and decrease ingrown hairs; may result in inflammatory papules and hyperpigmentation Traction Alopecia • Gradual, patchy hair loss produced by chronic traction on the hair roots • Common on the vertex or temporal-parietal areas • Discourage tight braiding in kids & adolescents • Resolves within 3-4 months after cessation of casual traction • Heavy traction can result in follicular atrophy and permanent alopecia Traction Alopecia Pomade Acne (Acne Venata) • Acne-iform eruptions due to the application of oily substances (vaseline, mineral oil) to hair • Develops in 70% of persons using pomades for long periods • Typically closed comedones, but may progress to papulopustules/hyperpigmentation • Discontinued application of oils and pomades usually results in resolution Pomade Acne Management of Pomade Acne • Show consideration for patient’s hair needs • Avoid unreasonable requests such as “eliminate all hair care products”; better to suggest use qod etc. • Retinoids (tretinoin) or adapalene (Differin) can help decrease comedone formation • Wash face bid with a-hydroxy acid or salicylic acid containing cleansers Dermatosis Papulosa Nigra • Multiple smooth, dome-shaped, pigmented papules 1-5 mm in size on cheeks, neck and upper chest • 35 – 75% AA women affected • Probable genetic component • Histologically identical to seborrheic keratoses • Lesions may develop during adolescence; but peak incidence is in the 6th decade Dermatosis Papulosa Nigra Famous Person … Management of DPN • Similar to rx of seborrheic keratoses • Observation is best • Simple excision (Iris scissor curettage ) if unsightly Conditions Among Infants and Children Mongolian Spots (or Blue-Grey Macules of Infancy) • Single or multiple flat, blue-gray or black areas of hyperpigmentation with hazy borders • D/t the arrest of melanocytic migration in embryonic dermis • Prevalence: – – – – African Amer Native Amer Asian Hispanic 96% 90% 81 – 90% 46 – 70% • Require no rx; usually disappear by age 5 • NO risk of transformation to melanoma Common in Lumbosacral area Also legs/shoulders/tru Transient Neonatal Pustular Melanosis • Vesicopustular eruption which affects about 5% of African American newborns • Unknown etiology • Affects face, trunk, palms & soles • The pustules are usually gone w/i 48-72 hrs • If lesions rupture in utero newborn may have hyperpigmented macules (vs. erythema toxicum neonatorum wh has erythema surrounding lesions) • Usually asymptomatic • No rx is required • Typically resolves spontaneously Transient Neonatal Pustular Melanosis Infantile Acropustulosis • Pruritic pustular condition most common at 6-10 mos of age, but may occur in newborn period • Discrete crops of 1-3mm papules/pustules on palms, soles & digits • CBC may show eosinophilia • Recurrent periods of eruption lasting 7 – 10 d; then remitting for 2 – 3 wks; then recurring • Rx – benadryl • Spontaneous resolution by 2-3 yrs of age Infantile Acropustulosis But Prominent Bumpiness – may actually be Lichen Nitidus Lichen Nitidus • This is a papulosquamous dis. of unknown cause – innumerable pinhead-sized uniform flat-topped papules • Common in African Amer kids – on forearms, chest, abdomen and penis • Koebner’s phenomenon – lesions at sites of skin trauma • Rx: emollients, antihistamines, ammonium lactate cream 12% (Lac-Hydrin); steroid creams can be used • Self-limited; resolves over months to yrs What is our Most Common Childhood Skin Disorder? Atopic Dermatitis • Chronic dermatitis related to atopy (eczema) with exacerbations/remissions • Common on face and flexural areas of extremities • Transient erythema may be difficult to see in skin of color, but scratching can produce follicular papules, lichenification and hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation • Xerosis (dry skin) is a hallmark; rx with oil based emollients; antihistamines can be used but are only helpful short-term, as tolerance to their effects develop • Often +FH of asthma, allergies, eczema Eysenback G, Williams H, Diepgen TL. Antihistamines for atopic eczema. Cochrane Skin Group. Cochrane Protocol. Issue 2, 2003. Oxford: Update Software. Atopic Dermatitis Common Sites Flexural Areas Note the hyperpigmentation Hand dermatitis before age 15 is common in adults with hand eczema Follicular Accentuation – common in eczema in SOC Scaling Rash of Scalp … • … Think Fungal! Trichophyton tonsurans most common cause of Tinea Capitus • Can produce inflammatory or non-inflamm alopecia (hard breakage of hairs at the roots produces “black dot alopecia”). +/- cervical lymphadenopathy. • The scale, pustules and black dots not seen in alopecia areata • Not seen with Wood’s lamp (but Microsporum can be seen ) Elewski B. Dermatol Clin 1996; 14: 23 Tinea capitus Up Close … The black dots favor Dx over alopecia areata Pustular boggy areas? … may have associated Kerion Resist the temptation to I&D – oral rx is the standard of care Treatment • Oral antifungals • BEST: Fluconazole 6mg/kg/d for 20d • Add Ketoconazole 2% shampoo to decrease shedding & transmission to family members until cured • Griseofulvin & Itraconazole are alternatives but have more side effects Credits • Much of the text in this talk was made available to me through the AAFP’s Skin Problems & Diseases course which I attended in South Carolina/2004. • All photos were made available through Google Images Thank You! Questions???