Chapter 1

Report
PowerPoint Presentation
to accompany
Educational Psychology
Fourth Edition
by John W. Santrock
1
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 1
Educational Psychology:
A Tool for Effective Teaching
2
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Learning Goals
1.
Describe some basic ideas about the field of
educational psychology.
2.
Identify the attitudes and skills of an effective
teacher.
3.
Discuss why research is important to effective
teaching and how educational psychologists
and teachers can conduct and evaluate
research.
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Educational Psychology:
A Tool for Effective Teaching
Exploring
Educational
Psychology
Historical
Background
Teaching: Art
and Science
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Educational Psychology…
is a branch of psychology
that specializes in
understanding
teaching and learning in
educational settings.
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Historical Background of Ed Psych
1850
1875
1900
1925
1950
William James
John Dewey
E. L. Thorndike
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William James (1842-1910)
Emphasized the
importance of observing
teaching and learning in
the classroom for
improving education
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John Dewey (1859-1952)



Viewed the child as an
active learner
Emphasized the child’s
adaptation to the
environment
Pushed for competent
education for all children
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E. L. Thorndike (1874-1949)


Initiated an emphasis on
assessment and
measurement
of learning
Promoted the idea that
educational psychology
must have a scientific base
and that measurement
should be a central focus
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Educational Psychology’s
Historical Background
Leta Hollingworth (1916) - First to use the
term gifted to describe students who scored
exceptionally high on IQ tests.
George Sanchez (1932) - Researcher who
demonstrated that intelligence tests were
culturally biased against minority children.
Mamie and Kenneth Clark (1939) - Pioneering
researchers who studied African American
children’s self-conceptions and identity.
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Behavioral Approach
 B.F. Skinner (1938)
 Psychology as the science of
observable behavior and controlling
conditions
 1950s programmed learning
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The Cognitive Revolution

1950s Bloom’s
Taxonomy of
Cognitive Skills

1980s Cognitive
Psychology
memory, thinking,
reasoning – to help
student learn
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Teaching as Art & Science

How is teaching both art and science?
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Educational Psychology:
A Tool for Effective Teaching
Effective
Teaching
Professional
Knowledge and
Skills
Commitment and
Motivation
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Reflection & Observation
Reflection:
 What were the characteristics
of the most effective teachers
in your educational
experience?
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Effective Teaching
Professional Knowledge and Skills
Effective Teachers:
 Exhibit subject matter competence
 Implement appropriate instructional strategies
 Set high goals for themselves and students and
plan for instruction
 Create developmentally appropriate instructional
materials and activities
 Manage classrooms for optimal learning
Cont…
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Effective Teaching
Professional Knowledge and Skills
Effective Teachers:

Use effective strategies to promote students’
motivation to learn

Communicate well with students and parents

Pay more than lip service to individual variations

Work effectively with students from culturally
diverse backgrounds

Have good assessment skills

Integrate technology into the curriculum
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Effective Teaching
Commitment and Motivation
Effective Teachers:
 Have a good attitude
 Care about students
 Invest time and effort
 Bring a positive attitude and enthusiasm
to the classroom
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Characteristics of Best Teachers
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Characteristics of Worst Teachers
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Educational Psychology:
A Tool for Effective Teaching
Research in
Educational
Psychology
Program
Evaluation
Research, Action
Research, and the
Teacher-asResearcher
Why Research
Is Important
Research
Methods
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Research in Educational Psychology
Research Is Important

Based on the scientific method,
researchers






Conceptualize the problem
Collect data
Draw conclusions
Revise research conclusions
and theory
Theory
Hypothesis
22 All rights reserved.
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The Scientific Research Approach
The scientific research
approach is objective,
systematic, and testable.
STEP 4
Revise Research
Conclusions & Theory
STEP 3
Draw Conclusions
STEP 2
Collect Information
STEP 1
Conceptualize the Problem
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Research Methods
Descriptive Research

Observations





Laboratory
Naturalistic observation
Participant observation
Interviews and questionnaires
Standardized tests
Cont…
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Research Methods
Descriptive Research




Case studies
Ethnographic Studies
Focus Groups
Personal Journals and Diaries
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Research Methods
Correlational
Research


Measures the strength
of a relation between
two variables
Does NOT establish
causal relation
Experimental
Research



Random assignment
Experimental vs. control
groups
Independent vs.
dependent variables
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Possible Explanations of
Correlational Data
Observed correlation
As permissive
teaching
increases,
children’s
self-control
decreases
Possible explanations for this correlation
Permissive
teaching
causes
Children’s lack
of self-control
causes
Other factors,
such as genetic
tendencies,
poverty, or
sociohistorical
circumstances
Children’s lack
of self-control
Permissive
teaching
Permissive
teaching
cause
both
and
Children’s lack
of self-control
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Experimental Research
Independent variable:
The manipulated, influential experimental factor.
Dependent variable:
The factor that is measured in an experiment.
Control group:
A comparison group, no manipulation.
Experimental group:
The group whose experience is manipulated.
Random assignment:
Participants are assigned by chance.
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Experimental Research
A study of the effects of time management on
students’ grades
Participants randomly assigned
to experimental and control groups
Experimental
Group
Control Group
(no time management
program)
(time management
program)
Students’
grades in school
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Time Span of Research
Cross-sectional



Studying groups of
people at one time
Researcher doesn’t
have to wait until
subjects grow older
Provides no
information about the
stability of data over
time
Longitudinal



Studying the same
individuals over time
Evaluates how children
change over time
Time consuming and
costly
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Program Evaluation, Action Research, and
Teacher-As-Researcher
Program Evaluation: Designed to make
decisions about a particular program.
Action Research: Used to solve a
particular classroom or
school problem.
Teacher-As-Researcher: Teachers
conduct their own studies to
improve their teaching.
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Enter the Debate
Should teachers conduct research using
their students as subjects?
YES
NO
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Crack the Case
The Case of the Curriculum Decision
1.
What issues would need to be considered in
conducting such a study?
2.
What type of research would be most
appropriate? Why?
3.
If she compared the two different curricula
and their outcomes, what would the
independent variable be?
Cont...
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Crack the Case
The Case of the Curriculum Decision
4.
5.
If she compared the two different curricula
and their outcomes, what would the
dependent variable be?
How should Ms. Huang go about
conducting her study?
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

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