Focus Group 7 (FG7) - Communication and Information

Report
New Technologies for Rural
Accessibility
Introduction to ITU-D Focus Group 7’s
Final Report
INFOETHICS2000
Yasuhiko KAWASUMI
November 13, 2000, Paris
<www7.itu.int/itudfg7>
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
Focus Group 7 Background



Topic of study formulated at WTDC98
(Valleta, Malta)
“Study various mechanism by which to
promote the development of new
telecommunication technologies for rural
applications”
Funded by a Voluntary Contribution from the
Government of Japan
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
FG7 Activities 1999 - 2000




Case Library: 57 project reports collected
and available on-line
FG7 Web Site: Over 1000 visitors from more
than 60 countries
Number of FG7 registered members: 81
Discussion groups via email, archived online
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
Collection of Case Reports on;



a) ongoing projects using technologies specially
designed for rural areas of developing countries
including Multipurpose Community Tele-center,
Telemedicine and Tele-education;
b) planned projects that make new combinations
linked with WLL networks;
c) examples of how equipment has been adapted
for use in particular, harsh climatic or other
conditions of remote and rural areas, such as
solar powered telephone
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
Focus Group aimed;



a)to select those types of project or system that
have social or economic importance but limited
commercial profitability, so that the ITU can
focus special support upon such projects in
helping to develop technology for rural
applications;
b)to list new measures to be taken by ITU-D to
encourage
manufacturers
and
relevant
organizations to create technology tailored to
developing countries;
c)among those measure, to recommend priorities
that ITU-D should follow to help achieve the
development of technology for rural applications.
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
Characteristics of Rural Areas








scarcity of absence of public facilities such as reliable
electricity supply, water, access roads and regular
transport;
- scarcity of technical personnel
- difficult topographical conditions, e.g. lakes, rivers, hills,
mountains or desserts which render the construction of
telecommunications networks very costly
- severe climatic conditions that make critical demands on
the equipment
low level of economic activity mainly based on
agriculture, fishing, handicrafts, etc.;
- low per capita income
- underdeveloped social infrastructure(health, education,
etc):
- low population density;
-
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
FG7 Findings: Applications
Women in Mozambique listening to broadcasts on a clockwork-powered radio
Source: Freeplay Foundation
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
Disadvantage of Rural Areas




a)
b)
c)
d)


e)





f)
g)
h)
i)
Low educational level, high illiteracy rate
Hardly any job opportunities
Low income per capita and per family
Increasing migration of the young to urban
centers
Unreliable and badly functioning public
transport
Irregular, if any, power supply
Poor health care and medical services
Lack of other government services
Little participation in national affairs
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
Community and Business
Development Applications
Multipurpose
Community
Telecenters (MCTs)
Equipment layout at the
Valle de Angeles MCT
Telephone-based Interactive Voice
Response (IVR)
Three access options for delivering relevant
information to rural communities over the PSTN
(Source: RiSTi - Telkom Indonesia)
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
Telemedicine
Electrocardiogram monitor that
transmits patient data over a
regular telephone line
Videophone Telemedicine
in Indonesia
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
Tele-education
African Virtual University
Content
Provider
(university or
studio)
Uplink
Facility
(Washington
D.C., Europe,
Canada
New Skies
Satellite
Partner
Institutions
(Africa)
Classroom
Classroom
AVU classroom at the Ethiopian
Civil Service College (left)
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
Trends in rural applications




Specialized expertise used to design
applications in education, health care,
administration, etc.
Widespread adoption of Internet platform
and multimedia content
Presence of multiple actors: PTOs,
Governments, NGOs, UN Agencies
Lack of telecom connectivity still #1 barrier
in rural areas
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
FG7 Findings: Technologies
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
Wireless Access Technologies
EXISTING




VHF radio
PMP/Cordless WLL
VSAT
Digital satellite
radio
EMERGING




GSM 400
IMT-2000
Wireless routers
Two-way satellite
Internet access
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
New Wireless Combinations
Example: Point-to-Multipoint / PHS - Wireless Local Loop
TDMA 2.4 GHz
PHS WLL
1.9 GHz
Remote Tower
NMS
Remote Tower
Local
Exchange with
V5.2 interface
Radio
Unit
Base Station
(control part)
Base Station
(radio part)
Remote Station
Fixed Station
Source: Japan Radio Company, Ltd
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
Wireless IP-Based Networks at PSTN
Edge
WAN link
over rough
terrain
Wireless
IP Phone
Network
Gateway
to PSTN
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
Powering rural and remote telecom
installations
Micro Hydro
Wind Energy
Solar Power
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
Meeting small-scale rural power
requirements
Device
Black and white TV
Colour TV
Video casette player
Radio cassette player w/speakers
Desktop computer and monitor
Laptop computer
Two-way radio (standby)
Two-way radio (transmitting)
Fax/answering machine
Typical power
consumption
(watts)
Typical use
per day
(hours)
12 - 18
40 - 120
20 - 40
5 - 80
350 - 500
20 - 40
5 - 10
40 - 50
30 - 60
2-6
2-6
1-4
2 - 12
4-8
4-8
12
0.5 - 3
continuous
Source: World Bank, Users' Guide to Off-Grid Energy Solutions.
http://www.worldbank.org/html/fpd/energy/off_grid
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
Taking advantage of low-cost
multimedia devices
Price Range for Low-End Multimedia Devices,
September 2000
Retail Prices, US$
$1000
$800
$600
$400
$200
$0
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
Providing rural access to information
through client/server computing
The
client/
server
model
is the
design
paradigm
of the
World
Wide
Web.
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
Lowering the technical skills barrier
using information appliances
To install a pre-configured
email appliance:



insert batteries
plug in telephone
line
turn on machine
To install PC-based
email:






connect hard disk drive,
monitor, keyboard and
mouse
plug computer & monitor
into 110/220 AC outlet
boot up the hard drive
navigate the file
management system
install email software
configure dial-up access
number, modem rate,
SMTP server, etc.
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
Shifting hardware and software
maintenance to urban areas using thin
client networks
Source: Byte Magazine,
www.byte.com
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
Guidelines for Rural ICTs

Modularity and scalability

Use of wireless technologies

Low frequency bands

Remote network management

Simple configuration & operation
16. Guidelines for rural ICT designers I
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
Guidelines for Rural ICTs

Accessible user interface

Long life cycle

Multi-user terminals

Standards compliance

Low power requirements
(con’t.)
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
Barriers in Question



Coordination of Frequencies under
1GHz with regional and national
authorities;
Concern about the high license fee for
frequency spectrum;
International Charging Arrangements
for Internet Services(ICAIS)
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
4.
Focus Group Recommendations
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
Focus Group 7 Recommendations
1. Promote the development of low-cost information
appliances for rural use.
2. Create a renewable energy handbook on small-scale
power systems for rural ICTs.
3. Increase collaboration with microfinance organizations
to develop communication-based rural businesses and
applications.
4. Conduct pilot projects of packet-based wireless access
infrastructure for multimedia applications.
5. Maintain and expand FG7 Web site.
6. Hold a symposium on new technologies for rural
applications.
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
Conclusions



The goal of “Missing Link” report in 1985;
“To bring telephone service within the easy
reach of all humankind”
As the gap of “haves” and “have-nots” are
closing, new gaps are widening
The new goal of the ITU Secretary General
“To bring internet services to all humankind
within a decade in the new millennium”
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
Conclusions-cont’d




1)Choice of technology for rural access is
one of the key issues.
2)Linking suppliers and implementers on the
web. By providing the comprehensive
catalogue with contact information is useful
3) Shared use concept is useful for making
ICT terminals and facilities at community
centers available at affordable cost.
4)Wireless access system such as FWA,
VSATs are effective means of establishing
infrastructure in rural areas; less cost and
easy installation over the wired system.
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
Conclusions-cont’d

5)IP based network is more economical and
flexible than circuit switched network.
Emerging packet based wireless access
technologies such as IMT-2000 and wireless
routers, are being designed to deliver wide
range of traffic types more efficiently than
traditional wired and cellular telephony
network.
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000
Conclusions-cont’d



6)Collaboration for promotion of rural
projects among multi-actors such as
PTO’s, Governments, UN Agencies,
and NGOs etc. should be encouraged.
7) Participation of women and the
youth for promotion of information
access for rural community should be
encouraged.
8) Visit to <www7.itu.int/itudfg7>
SG2 Focus Group 7 Final Report Presentation
Geneva, 21 September 2000

similar documents