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Report
Journal Club
08 January 2012
Simin Li
1
The structure and mechanics of bone
-anniversary review
• John D Currey
• Department of Biology, University of York
• Journal of Materials Science JAN 2012 DOI
10.1007/s10853-011-5914-9
2
World wide research Groups in bone
community
● UK: 2; ●USA: 6; ● Irland: 1; ●Japan: 1
Others: to be added …
3
Prof. John. D. Currey: Department of biology, University
of York, UK
Publication: 1959-now; 117 publication hits in web of knowledge
Research group: Biochemistry and Biophysics
Research interest: specialist in bone tissue
The mechanical properties of mineralised tissues, at the moment, deer
antler. The role of microdamage in determining the toughness of bone
Books:
The mechanical adaptations of bones; Bones: structure and mechanics 2002,
1. The effect of porosity and mineral-content on the youngs modulus of
elasticity of compact-bone (360 cites)
2. Changes in the stiffness, strength, and toughness of human cortical bone
with age
3. Prediction of mechanical properties of the human calcaneus by
broadband ultrasonic attenuation
4
Dr Peter Zioupos : Department of Engineering and
Applied Science, Cranfield University, UK
Publication: 1992-now, 70 publication hits in web of knowledge (with Currey,
Rho)
Research interest: biomaterial hard tissues (simulation and exp)
Biomechanics of Materials research group (strain rate, simulation etc)
1.
2.
3.
4.
The effect of strain rate on fracture toughness of human cortical bone: a
finite element study.
Simulation of Creep in non-homogeneous samples of human cortical
bone
The Effect of Strain Rate on the Mechanical Properties of Human Cortical
Bone
The importance of the elastic and plastic components of strain in tensile
and compressive fatigue of human cortical bone in relation to
orthopaedic biomechanics
5
Prof. Stephen C. Cowin :Department of Mechanical
Engineering The City College, NY USA
Publication: 1972-now; 87 publication hits in web of knowledge
Research group: Musculoskeletal Biomechanics research centers
Research Interests: (bone theory, test)
His current publications are in orthopedic biomechanics and anisotropic elasticity.
Books:
Bone Mechanics Handbook; Mechanical Properties of Bone; Tissue Mechanics
1.
2.
3.
4.
A model for the excitation of osteocytes by mechanical loading-induced bone
fluid shear stresses (502)
On the dependence of the elasticity and strength of cancellous bone on
apparent density
A continuous wave technique for the measurement of the elastic properties of
cortical bone
Bone poroelasticity
6
A.Prof. Q. D. Yang: Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Department University of Michigan, USA; Brian N Cox: Rockwell
Scientific Co., LLC
With Ritchie and Nalla
Publication: 1990-now; 128 publication hits in web of knowledge
Group: Materials Research Group
Research interests: (FEA, CZ element, A-FEM)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Mixed-mode fracture analyses of plastically-deforming adhesive joints
(96)
High-Fidelity Simulations of Multiple Fracture Processes in Laminated
Composites in Tension
Cohesive models for damage evolution in laminated composites
An augmented finite element method for modeling arbitrary
discontinuities in composite materials
7
Prof. Robert O. Ritchie; Ravi Kiran Nalla (RA): Department of Materials
Science & Engineering, University of California, Berkeley USA; Materials
Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Publication: 1986-now; 102 publication hits in web of knowledge
Research interest: (fracture mechanics)
Structure material; fracture mechanics and fatigue-crack propagation
Book:
Small fatigue cracks
Ritchie:
1. On the relationship between critical tensile stress and fracture toughness in mild
steel (927 in Google scholar)
2. Propagation of short fatigue cracks
3. Fracture toughness and fatigue-crack propagation in a Zr–Ti–Ni–Cu–Be bulk
metallic glass
Nalla: 32 hits
1. Mechanistic fracture criteria for the failure of human cortical bone (187)
2. Mechanistic aspects of fracture and R-curve behavior in human cortical bone
3. On the origin of the toughness of mineralized tissue: microcracking or crack
bridging?
8
A. Prof. Elisa budyn: Department of Mechanical and Industrial
Engineering University of Illinois at Chicago USA
Publication: 2003-now; 8 publication hits in web of knowledge
Laboratory Computational Mechanics Laboratory
Research interest: (Multi-scale, XFEM)
1.
2.
3.
4.
An extended finite element method with higher-order elements
for curved cracks (66)
A method for multiple crack growth in brittle materials without
Remeshing
Fracture strength assessment and aging signs detection in human
cortical bone using an X-FEM multiple scale approach
Bovine Cortical Bone Stiffness and Local Strain are Affected by
Mineralization and Morphology
9
Rho J Y: Department of Biomedical Engineering,
University of Memphis, Memphis USA
Publication: 1997-2011 51 publication hits in web of knowledge
Research interest: ultrasonic characterization of biomaterials; Nanoindentation
1.
2.
3.
4.
Mechanical properties and the hierarchical structure of bone (407)
The characterization of broadband ultrasound attenuation and fractal
analysis by biomechanical properties
Elastic properties of human cortical and trabecular lamellar bone measured
by nanoindentation
Youngs modulus of trabecular and cortical bone material - ultrasonic and
microtensile measurements
10
Surgeon group: Dr. ALBERT H. BURSTEIN; Dr.
Donald T Reilly
Dr. Donald T Reilly: publication from 1972-2010; 64 publication
hits in web of knowledge
ALBERT H. BURSTEIN publication from 1968-2008; 145
publication hits in web of knowledge
Most from 1970s (early research of mechanical properties)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Elastic and ultimate properties of compact bone tissue (577)
Review article - mechanical-properties of cortical bone (289)
Aging of bone tissue - mechanical-properties
Ultimate properties of bone tissue - effects of yielding
11
Prof. D. Taylor: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Trinity
Centre for Bioengineering, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
Publication: 1990-now; 78 publication hits in web of knowledge on ‘bone’
231 in total
Research group: Trinity Centre for Bioengineering
Research interest: (The Theory of Critical Distances-TCOD, Bone Mechanics)
Development of new approaches in fracture mechanics, using theoretical
analysis and experimental testing; Investigations into the strength and
fracture of bone, including repair and adaptation; Theoretical modelling and
experimental studies
1.
2.
3.
4.
PREDICTION OF BONE ADAPTATION USING DAMAGE ACCUMULATION
(122)
Micro-damage and mechanical behaviour: predicting failure and
remodeling in compact bone
The Cellular Transducer in Damage-Stimulated Bone Remodelling
Micro-crack accumulation at different intervals during fatigue testing of
compact bone
12
Japan group: Prof. Mamoru Mitsuishi:
Department of Mechanical Engineering, School
of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, JP
Publication: 27 hits in web of knowledge in ‘bone’
Research interests: bone cutting -experimental based
newest on bone publication 2010
1. Relationship between anisotropic tissue and cutting stress
characteristics in pig cortical bone
2. New cutting method for bone based on its crack propagation
characteristics
3. A study of bone micro-cutting characteristics using a newly developed
advanced bone cutting machine tool for total knee arthroplasty
4. Fluoroscopic bone fragment tracking for surgical navigation in femur
fracture reduction by incorporating optical tracking of hip joint rotation
center
13
The structure and mechanics of bone
• Catigrized hierarchical structure into 4 levels
– Nano, micro, meso, whole bone
•
•
•
•
Different levels of simplification
Fracture mechanics
Size effect
The role of genetics and external forces
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Elastic behaviour
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Fracture behaviour
• Mineral-collagen interaction in bone through
either ions or hydrogen bonds:
–
–
–
–
Ionic interactions
Sliding of layered water films
Sacrificial bonds and hidden lengths
Virtual internal bonds
• Bone becomes insensitive to flaws or cracks at
sub-micro level
• Counter-arguments: flaw weaken strength of
nanotube compare with flawless one
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Stiffness v.s. toughness
• Stiffness and toughness go against each other
• Increase stiffness with increasing
mineralization. – mineral stiffer
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Increase mineral decrease toughness
• Denser crystal inhibit collagen from
deformation
• Reduce post-yield deformation
• Less micro-damage, means lease total work to
be done for breakage.
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Micro scale level
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Compact bone
Woven bone
Plexiform
bone=fibrolamellar
bone=laminar
Osteonal bone
Primary
Secondary
Lamellar bone
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Woven bone
Primary bone
Secondary and
plexiform bone
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• Woven bone: found in infant or fractue callus; randomly arranged collagen
fibers; pool mechanical properties, quick grow
• Osteonal bone:
• primary (no haversian system): are likely formed by mineralization of
cartilage, less lamellae than secondary, small vascular channels (no
haversian), may be stronger than secondary
• Secondary osteon (haversian system, cement line): always younger then
the bone replaced, so, less mineral, low E(stiffness) than interstitial;
cement line: discontinuity between inter and secondary, so cracks are
likely initiate there or divert from
• Plexiform bone=fibrolamellar bone=laminar
• Rapid grow, offer increased mechanical support for longer periods of time.
more surface area then osteonal, This increases the amount of bone
which can be formed in a given time frame and provided a way to more
rapidly increase bone stiffness and strength in a short period of time.
greater stiffness than primary or secondary cortical bone
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•
•
•
•
Lamellae
Osteoclasts
Lacunae
Canaliculi
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Fracture mechanics in micro-scale
• Micro-structure interface, discontinuity cause
cracks are likely to initiate or divert from here
• Uncrack bridges
• R-curve
• Old people low KC and low R-curve (brittle)
• Young people High KC and high R-curve (tough)
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Low mineral content 48%
High mineral content85%
Work of fracture 6200J m-2
work of fracture 20 J m-2
28
• Size effect remain puzzling
• Bone shape is determined by gene
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