Nutrition PowerPoint

You are what you eat
Influences on Eating Patterns
- advertisements
- vending machine food
- role models
- absence of family meals
•Body Image
•Eating away from home
- making independent decisions
•Erratic schedules
- reliance on convenient foods
- missed meals, usually breakfast
•Frequent snacking
- usually high calorie, sugar, fat and sodium
•Limited variety and adequacy
The science that investigates the relationship between
food and its physiological functions.
The study of nutrients – compounds in foods
that the body requires for proper growth,
maintenance, and functioning.
The 6 essential nutrients: carbohydrates,
protein, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water.
Hunger vs. Appetite
Hunger is the feeling with the physiological
need to eat.
Appetite is the desire to eat, normally
accompanies hunger but is more
psychological than physiological
A unit of measure that indicates
the amount of energy that food
provides, specifically, the amount
of energy required to raise the
temperature of one kilogram of
water by one degree Celsius.
Below is a list of the caloric content in
some essential nutrients (and
Carbohydrates = 4 calories per gram
Proteins = 4 calories per gram
Fats = 9 calories per gram
Alcohol = 7 calories per gram
Fact: Excessive calorie
consumption is a major factor
in the obesity epidemic.
A macronutrient that is the body’s universal
energy source, supplying sugar to all body
Simple Carbohydrates are constructed from just one or two sugar
molecules. That means they are easily digested found in fruits and
also processed sugars. Ex: glucose, fructose (fruits), lactose (milk),
sucrose (table sugar). When consuming simple carbohydrates, try to
get them from whole foods rather than processed foods. Usually, there
will be less total sugar and more vitamins, minerals, & other useful
Complex Carbohydrates are made up of chains of multiple sugar
molecules (3+); therefore, they take longer to digest. Complex
carbohydrates are often referred to as starches. This excludes
(glycogen and fiber). Starches are found in foods such as grains,
legumes, most vegetables and some fruit.
Carbohydrates Function
Your body breaks carbohydrates down into a type of
sugar called glucose. Its function is to provide energy for
physiological processes such as respiration, muscle
contraction and relaxation, heart rhythm and the
regulation of body temperature. Roughly half of the
energy required by the body is supplied by glucose and
a stored carbohydrate called glycogen.
Glycogen is a reserve fuel (energy) stored in muscle and
liver. (primary energy storage is fats)
- important concept for athletes
Necessary for proper fat metabolism
Adequate intake results in protein sparing during energy
Fiber (non digestible complex carbohydrate )
Often called “bulk” or “roughage” is the
indigestible portion of plant foods that help
move foods through the
digestive system and
softens stools by
absorbing water.
Recommendation is 25
Source: fruits, veggies,
whole grains, high fiber
cereals, legumes and beans.
They play a role in developing and repairing bone,
muscle, skin and blood cells.
Are a key element in antibodies that protect us from
disease, of enzymes that control chemical activities in
the body, and hormones that regulate body functions.
Aid in the transport of iron,
oxygen and nutrients to
all body cells
Can be found in animal
products, legumes,
grains, nuts, fish, fish oil,
meat, poultry, whey powder
Amino Acids: are the building blocks
that help proteins build, maintain, & repair
muscle & other tissue
Complete vs Incomplete Protein Sources
Your body needs 22 different types of amino acids
to function properly. Adults can synthesize 13 of
those within the body (known as non-essential
amino acids), but the other 9 must be obtained
from food (known as essential amino acids). It’s
these essential amino acids that derive the
classification of protein as either complete or
Complete Proteins
Complete Protein Sources
Complete proteins are those that contain all essential amino acids in
sufficient quantity – these are typically animal-based proteins, but a few
plant sources are also considered complete. A few examples are (*
indicates plant-based):
· Meat
· Fish
· Dairy products (milk, yogurt, whey)
· Eggs
· Spirulina*
· Quinoa*
· Buckwheat*
· Hemp and chia seed*
Incomplete Proteins
Incomplete Protein Sources
Incomplete proteins are those that don’t contain
all 9 essential amino acids, or don’t in sufficient
quantity to meet the body’s needs, and must be
supplemented with other proteins. These include:
· Nuts & seeds
· Legumes
· Grains
· Vegetables
Fats (lipids)
Play a role in maintaining healthy skin
and hair, insulating body organs against shock,
maintaining body temperature, and promoting
healthy cell functions.
They make food taste better
Provide energy in
the absence of
Carry fat-soluble
vitamins A,D,E,
and K to the cells
FAT – The Good vs. The Bad
Unsaturated (The Good)
Liquid at room temperature
monounsaturated fatty acids
- olive, canola, and peanut oil,
nuts, avocados
polyunsaturated fatty acids
- vegetable seeds and oils,
nuts, fatty fish
Saturated (The Bad)
lower blood cholesterol when
substituted for saturated fat
Solid at room temperature
saturated fatty acids
- animal foods and bakery
- palm, palm kernel, and
coconut oil, butter
trans-fatty acids
- stick margarine, shortening,
commercial frying fat
- snack foods made with
vegetable oil
raise blood cholesterol
Vitamins( Water Soluble & Fat Soluble)
Essential organic compounds that promote growth
and reproduction and help maintain life and
Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin
-carbohydrate metabolism
Vitamin A, C, E
-healthy new cells and skin
Vitamin D
- skeletal growth
Folic Acid
- prevention of neural tube defects
and reduced heart disease risk
Inorganic, indestructible elements that aid the
body’s processes
Without minerals, vitamins cannot be absorbed
Some are needed in larger amounts
Sodium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium,
potassium, sulfur and chloride
Some are needed in smaller amounts
Iron, zinc, manganese, copper, iodine, and cobalt
A person can only survive a few days without water
Between 50-60% of total body weight is water
Responsible for bathing cells, aids in fluid and electrolyte balance,
maintains pH balance and transports molecules and cells throughout the
Major component of blood, which
carries oxygen and nutrients
to the body
A person should drink a minimum of
half their wt. in oz and a maximum
of their wt in oz (ex: 100lb person
drinks 50-100 oz. per day).
Acts as a coolant for the body.
United States Food Guides
Choose My Plate
My Pyramid
(People who avoid animal flesh - meat, fish, poultry)
Vegans – only plant sources – fruits, veggies, legumes
(beans, peas)
grains, seeds & nuts.
Lacto – eat dairy
products in addition to
plant sources.
Lacto-ovo – include
dairy products & eggs as
well as plant sources
Pesco – avoid red meat and chicken
but will eat seafood, dairy products, & eggs.
Flexitarians – may avoid only red meat, or may eat animal
based foods once or twice a week.
Vegetarian Food Guide
Vegan Food Guide Pyramid
Mediterranean Food Guide
Latin American Food Guide
Canada’s Food Guide Pyramid
Asian Food Guide Pyramid
Harvard Healthy Eating Pyramid
Food Intolerance
Occurs with people who lack certain digestive
chemicals and suffer adverse effects when
they consume substances that their body has
difficulty in breaking down.
Common examples include lactose, food
additives, sulfites, and MSG
Organic Foods
Foods that are grown without the use of
pesticides or chemicals.
Can generally be more expensive than nonorganic foods but are
but are healthier.
Whole Foods
Definition: Whole foods are foods that
are unprocessed and unrefined, or processed
and refined as little as possible, before being
consumed. Whole foods typically do not contain
added salt, carbohydrates, or fat.
Examples: whole foods include unpolished
grains, beans, fruits, vegetables, and animal
products, including meats and nonhomogenized dairy products.
Super Food
Definition: A nutrient-rich food considered to
be especially beneficial for health and wellbeing.
Examples: would be quinoa, blueberries,
salmon, goji berries, acai berries, spirulina,
honey, etc…
National Dietary Goals
Eat the proper number of servings from the food groups.
Consume no more that 60 grams of total fat and no more than 20
grams of saturated fat per day.
Balance caloric intake with caloric expenditure.
Keep sodium intake under 2400 mg per day.
Diet should be 50-55% carbohydrates, 30% good fat, and
15% protein.
Consume 64 oz. or half your body weight (in oz.) of water per day.
Avoid processed sugar.
Moderate intake of alcohol
Consume 25 grams of fiber per day.
Body Mass Index
Weight in Pounds
Height in inches squared
BMI Standards:
Below 18.5 --- underweight
18.6 to 24.9 --- normal
25.0 to 29.9 --- overweight
30.0 to 39.9 --- obese
40 and above --- morbidly obese
Body Fat Percent Healthy Range:
Girls - 18-22%
Boys - 10-14%
Eating Disorders
•“Eating” refers to
-eating habits, weight control practices, and attitudes about
weight and body image
•“Disorder” refers to
-loss of self control
-obsession, anxiety, and guilt
-alienation from self and others
-physiological imbalances
Eating Disorders
Anorexia Nervosa
Refusal to maintain
appropriate weight
Intense fear of body fat
and weight gain
Distorted body image
Loss of 3 consecutive
menstrual periods
Concern with body wt.
Bulimia Nervosa
Repeated episodes of bingeing
and purging
Feeling out of control
Purging after binging
Frequent dieting
Extreme concern with body
weight and shape
Binge Eating
• Constant eating or eating large quantities during a sitting.
• BED sufferers do not have the love for food that most compulsive
orders do.
• Like anorexics and bulimics, binge eaters are ashamed of their
bodies and generally embarrassed about their eating habits.

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