Nutrition You are what you eat Influences on Eating Patterns •Media - advertisements - vending machine food •Parents - role models - absence of family meals •Body Image •Peers •Eating away from home - making independent decisions •Erratic schedules - reliance on convenient foods - missed meals, usually breakfast •Frequent snacking - usually high calorie, sugar, fat and sodium •Limited variety and adequacy Nutrition The science that investigates the relationship between food and its physiological functions. The study of nutrients – compounds in foods that the body requires for proper growth, maintenance, and functioning. The 6 essential nutrients: carbohydrates, protein, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water. Hunger vs. Appetite Hunger is the feeling with the physiological need to eat. Appetite is the desire to eat, normally accompanies hunger but is more psychological than physiological Calories A unit of measure that indicates the amount of energy that food provides, specifically, the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree Celsius. Below is a list of the caloric content in some essential nutrients (and alcohol): Carbohydrates = 4 calories per gram Proteins = 4 calories per gram Fats = 9 calories per gram Alcohol = 7 calories per gram Fact: Excessive calorie consumption is a major factor in the obesity epidemic. Carbohydrates A macronutrient that is the body’s universal energy source, supplying sugar to all body cells. Simple Carbohydrates are constructed from just one or two sugar molecules. That means they are easily digested found in fruits and also processed sugars. Ex: glucose, fructose (fruits), lactose (milk), sucrose (table sugar). When consuming simple carbohydrates, try to get them from whole foods rather than processed foods. Usually, there will be less total sugar and more vitamins, minerals, & other useful nutrients. Complex Carbohydrates are made up of chains of multiple sugar molecules (3+); therefore, they take longer to digest. Complex carbohydrates are often referred to as starches. This excludes (glycogen and fiber). Starches are found in foods such as grains, legumes, most vegetables and some fruit. Carbohydrates Function Your body breaks carbohydrates down into a type of sugar called glucose. Its function is to provide energy for physiological processes such as respiration, muscle contraction and relaxation, heart rhythm and the regulation of body temperature. Roughly half of the energy required by the body is supplied by glucose and a stored carbohydrate called glycogen. Glycogen is a reserve fuel (energy) stored in muscle and liver. (primary energy storage is fats) - important concept for athletes Necessary for proper fat metabolism Adequate intake results in protein sparing during energy expenditure. Fiber (non digestible complex carbohydrate ) Often called “bulk” or “roughage” is the indigestible portion of plant foods that help move foods through the digestive system and softens stools by absorbing water. Recommendation is 25 grams/day Source: fruits, veggies, whole grains, high fiber cereals, legumes and beans. Proteins They play a role in developing and repairing bone, muscle, skin and blood cells. Are a key element in antibodies that protect us from disease, of enzymes that control chemical activities in the body, and hormones that regulate body functions. Aid in the transport of iron, oxygen and nutrients to all body cells Can be found in animal products, legumes, grains, nuts, fish, fish oil, meat, poultry, whey powder Amino Acids: are the building blocks that help proteins build, maintain, & repair muscle & other tissue Complete vs Incomplete Protein Sources Your body needs 22 different types of amino acids to function properly. Adults can synthesize 13 of those within the body (known as non-essential amino acids), but the other 9 must be obtained from food (known as essential amino acids). It’s these essential amino acids that derive the classification of protein as either complete or incomplete. Complete Proteins Complete Protein Sources Complete proteins are those that contain all essential amino acids in sufficient quantity – these are typically animal-based proteins, but a few plant sources are also considered complete. A few examples are (* indicates plant-based): · Meat · Fish · Dairy products (milk, yogurt, whey) · Eggs · Spirulina* · Quinoa* · Buckwheat* · Hemp and chia seed* Incomplete Proteins Incomplete Protein Sources Incomplete proteins are those that don’t contain all 9 essential amino acids, or don’t in sufficient quantity to meet the body’s needs, and must be supplemented with other proteins. These include: · Nuts & seeds · Legumes · Grains · Vegetables Fats (lipids) Play a role in maintaining healthy skin and hair, insulating body organs against shock, maintaining body temperature, and promoting healthy cell functions. They make food taste better Provide energy in the absence of carbohydrates Carry fat-soluble vitamins A,D,E, and K to the cells FAT – The Good vs. The Bad Unsaturated (The Good) Liquid at room temperature monounsaturated fatty acids - olive, canola, and peanut oil, nuts, avocados polyunsaturated fatty acids - vegetable seeds and oils, nuts, fatty fish Saturated (The Bad) lower blood cholesterol when substituted for saturated fat Solid at room temperature saturated fatty acids - animal foods and bakery products - palm, palm kernel, and coconut oil, butter trans-fatty acids - stick margarine, shortening, commercial frying fat - snack foods made with partially-hydrogenated vegetable oil raise blood cholesterol Vitamins( Water Soluble & Fat Soluble) Essential organic compounds that promote growth and reproduction and help maintain life and health. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin -carbohydrate metabolism Vitamin A, C, E -healthy new cells and skin Vitamin D - skeletal growth Folic Acid - prevention of neural tube defects and reduced heart disease risk Minerals Inorganic, indestructible elements that aid the body’s processes Without minerals, vitamins cannot be absorbed Some are needed in larger amounts Sodium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sulfur and chloride Some are needed in smaller amounts Iron, zinc, manganese, copper, iodine, and cobalt Water A person can only survive a few days without water Between 50-60% of total body weight is water Responsible for bathing cells, aids in fluid and electrolyte balance, maintains pH balance and transports molecules and cells throughout the body Major component of blood, which carries oxygen and nutrients to the body A person should drink a minimum of half their wt. in oz and a maximum of their wt in oz (ex: 100lb person drinks 50-100 oz. per day). Acts as a coolant for the body. United States Food Guides Choose My Plate My Pyramid Vegetarianism (People who avoid animal flesh - meat, fish, poultry) Vegans – only plant sources – fruits, veggies, legumes (beans, peas) grains, seeds & nuts. Lacto – eat dairy products in addition to plant sources. Lacto-ovo – include dairy products & eggs as well as plant sources Pesco – avoid red meat and chicken but will eat seafood, dairy products, & eggs. Flexitarians – may avoid only red meat, or may eat animal based foods once or twice a week. Vegetarian Food Guide Pyramid Vegan Food Guide Pyramid Mediterranean Food Guide Pyramid Latin American Food Guide Pyramid Canada’s Food Guide Pyramid Asian Food Guide Pyramid Harvard Healthy Eating Pyramid Food Intolerance Occurs with people who lack certain digestive chemicals and suffer adverse effects when they consume substances that their body has difficulty in breaking down. Common examples include lactose, food additives, sulfites, and MSG Organic Foods Foods that are grown without the use of pesticides or chemicals. Can generally be more expensive than nonorganic foods but are but are healthier. Whole Foods Definition: Whole foods are foods that are unprocessed and unrefined, or processed and refined as little as possible, before being consumed. Whole foods typically do not contain added salt, carbohydrates, or fat. Examples: whole foods include unpolished grains, beans, fruits, vegetables, and animal products, including meats and nonhomogenized dairy products. Super Food Definition: A nutrient-rich food considered to be especially beneficial for health and wellbeing. Examples: would be quinoa, blueberries, salmon, goji berries, acai berries, spirulina, honey, etc… National Dietary Goals Eat the proper number of servings from the food groups. Consume no more that 60 grams of total fat and no more than 20 grams of saturated fat per day. Balance caloric intake with caloric expenditure. Keep sodium intake under 2400 mg per day. Diet should be 50-55% carbohydrates, 30% good fat, and 15% protein. Consume 64 oz. or half your body weight (in oz.) of water per day. Avoid processed sugar. Moderate intake of alcohol Consume 25 grams of fiber per day. Body Mass Index Weight in Pounds Height in inches squared BMI Standards: Below 18.5 --- underweight 18.6 to 24.9 --- normal 25.0 to 29.9 --- overweight 30.0 to 39.9 --- obese 40 and above --- morbidly obese Body Fat Percent Healthy Range: Girls - 18-22% Boys - 10-14% 703 Eating Disorders •“Eating” refers to -eating habits, weight control practices, and attitudes about weight and body image •“Disorder” refers to -loss of self control -obsession, anxiety, and guilt -alienation from self and others -physiological imbalances Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Refusal to maintain appropriate weight Intense fear of body fat and weight gain Distorted body image Loss of 3 consecutive menstrual periods Concern with body wt. Bulimia Nervosa Repeated episodes of bingeing and purging Feeling out of control Purging after binging Frequent dieting Extreme concern with body weight and shape Binge Eating • Constant eating or eating large quantities during a sitting. • BED sufferers do not have the love for food that most compulsive orders do. • Like anorexics and bulimics, binge eaters are ashamed of their bodies and generally embarrassed about their eating habits.