Animal Science. Chickens and Eggs

Report
EARLY WORK
Describe
Why

MONDAY 1-31-11
the dairy farm tour.
did the chicken cross the road?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vdFIXsrjkXI&feature=related (chicken dance)
Monday, January 31st, 2011
ANIMAL SCIENCE- CHICKEN/EGG INDUSTRY
Problem Statement
 What can Payton learn about the Chicken
and Egg Industry?
Objectives
1. Introduce poultry unit.
2. Discuss aspects of the chicken industry.
ALWAYS GETS THE CHICKS
WHY DID THE CHICKEN
CROSS THE ROAD?
POULTRY ENTERPRISES
Three General Types of Chicken Enterprises
 1.
Egg Production
Laying
hens produce eggs
Confined cages or free-range
After production cycle, hens sold for meat
 2.
Broiler Production
 Raising
chickens for meat
 High quality rations fed to secure rapid, efficient gains
 3.
Replacement Pullets
 Raising
chicks for egg production or broiler production
PRODUCTION/CONSUMPTION TRENDS

# of farms with laying hens decreased

# of chickens raised per farm  increased

Eggs-- Slight decline in popularity


Cholesterol concerns
Chicken Meat– Major increase in popularity

Perceived to have less cholesterol than beef/pork
Leading States
Laying Hens & Egg Production
VIDEOS
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8zbkkkn_PxE
&feature=related
 Chick
Production
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aJ7rrHYmFiQ
 Broiler
Production
POULTRY TERMS
CHICKENS
Gallus
CHICKENS
Male- Not castrated, Can be a father
 Rooster
Male- Castrated, Cannot father
 Capon
CHICKENS
Female- Has had offspring
 Hen
Female- Has not had offspring
 Pullet
Young Male or Female Offspring
 Chick
CHICKENS
Parturition
 Hatching/Laying
Gestation
 21 days
POULTRY
ANATOMY
EARLY WORK
WEDNESDAY 2-2-11

Which came first… the
chicken or the egg?

Which area of the United
States is the Poultry
industry heavily
concentrated?
Wednesday, February 2nd, 2011
ANIMAL SCIENCE- CHICKEN/EGG INDUSTRY
Problem Statement
 What equipment could Brennan use in
the PoultryIndustry?
Objectives
1. Identify Poultry Industry equipment.
2. View Mike Rowe clip about Egg Farming.
BEAK TRIMMER
Trims peak
Machine with
foot pedal
CHICK STARTER FEEDER
Feeding dish for baby chicks
CHICKEN FEEDER
Feeding dish for older chicks
EGG SCALE
Weighs and classifies eggs
LEG BANDS
Identification tool
Circular, numbered bands
OPEN JUG WATERER
Watering dish
NIPPLE WATERER
Watering device
Minimizes waste
3 TIER COOP
Layered chicken cages
ADVANTAGES TO RAISING POULTRY
High feed efficiency
 Fast return on investment
 Low land requirements
 Mechanized operation

DISADVANTAGES TO RAISING POULTRY
Disease and parasites
 Initial capital investment is high
 Limitations of zoning
 Death losses from predators
 Waste disposal and odor

EARLY WORK
THURSDAY 2-3-11

What are leg bands used for in the poultry
industry?

What is the purpose of an egg scale?
Thursday, February 3nd, 2011
ANIMAL SCIENCE- CHICKEN/EGG INDUSTRY
Problem Statement
 What are the most common breeds of
chickens?
Objectives
1. Identify chickens breeds.
2. Create chicken breed profile page.
BLACK COCHIN
SILVER CAMPINE
WHITE DORKING
GREY JUNGLE FOWL
SINGLE-COMB WHITE LEGHORN
TURKEN
NEW HAMPSHIRE RED
RHODE ISLAND RED
WHITE-CRESTED BLACK POLISH
SUMATRA
WHITE-FACED BLACK SPANISH
FACEBOOK CHICKEN PROFILE PAGE
EARLY WORK
FRIDAY 2-4-11

Which breed of chicken did you do your
Facebook Profile page about?

What is the relationship status of your chicken?

What color of eggs does your chicken lay?
Friday, February 4th, 2011
ANIMAL SCIENCE- CHICKEN/EGG INDUSTRY
Problem Statement
 What can Roger learn about the egg
industry?
Objectives
1. Identify anatomy of an egg.
2. Examine internal and external egg parts.
EGG ANATOMY
EGGS
AIR CELL
-Blunt end
-Contraction of
egg during cooling
-Size increases as
egg ages
GERMINAL DISC
-genetic
information from
female
-sperm fertilizes
egg within the
germinal disk
-white spot on the
yolk
THICK AND THIN ALBUMEN
-egg white
-source of protein
CHALAZA
-Twisted and cord
like
- Anchors yolk in
center of egg
SHELL
- Calcium
Carbonate
-Has pores
-Color determined
by breed
SHELL MEMBRANES
-Attached to shell
-Encloses contents
-Protects albumen
from bacteria
VITELLINE (YOLK) MEMBRANE
- Surrounds and
seals in the yolk
-thin, elastic
YOLK
- Color varies by
feed source
- Source of
vitamins, minerals
& fat
GRADES OF EGGS
Appearance determines grade
 External and Internal
AA
A
B
 Inedible

EGGS
 AA
 Clean, no cracks, correct shape
 Albumen tight around yolk
A
 Mostly
good, clean
 Albumen a little spread out
B
 Not
clean, misshapen
 Albumen spread out, flat yolk
CLASSES
Ounces of weight/Dozen Eggs
Jumbo= 30 oz.
Extra Large= 27 oz.
Large= 24 oz.
Medium= 21 oz.
Small= 18 oz.
Peewee= 15 oz.
EXTERNAL
Clean
 Shape
 Cages Scratches
 Cracks
 Weak Spots

INTERNAL

Candling= shine bright
light through egg
Identify defects
 Yolk Color
 Blood Spots
 Size of air cell
 Embryonic
development
BLOOD SPOTS
*Capillary burst in reproductive system
*Doesn’t mean embryo is growing
AIR CELL SIZE

Larger = older
New Eggs= Float
Old Eggs= Sink

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NDWSnAsW
or0&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=20inTZvPZP
4

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BjDQ8QXB7
cg&feature=related
EARLY WORK
TUESDAY 2-8-11

What did your parents say when you described
the internal egg to them? 

What is candling?

What are the 3 main grades of eggs? Which is
best?
Monday, February 8th, 2011
ANIMAL SCIENCE- CANDLING/INCUBATION
Problem Statement
 How will Cameron candle and incubate eggs?
Objectives
1. Identify candling techniques and incubation guidelines.
2. Candle and label eggs.
3. Starts eggs in the incubator.
CANDLING EGGS

Shining a light through eggs to determine
internal characteristics

Freshly laid egg is about 107 degreessame as hen

Egg cools to surrounding
temperatures, egg contents shrink,
shell remains the same, more pores at
the large end of the egg– air enters
and fills the space left by shrinking
contents

Chicken pips through membranes to
air cell– first breath of air in this space
AIR CELL

Increases during incubation

Not too small
 Chick

will be strangled on fluids
Not too big
 Fluids
will be dried up and chick will be weak and
may stick to the shell
INCUBATION

Heating of eggs to hatch chicks
INCUBATION OF EGGS

Dry Bulb



100 degrees
heat
Wet Bulb


86 degrees
humidity
Humidity
 Too high= chick drowns in fluids
 Too low= chick sticks to side of shell
HATCHING

Do not bother the thermostat unless it is absolutely
necessary. The working of the machine may be affected
if the thermostat is tampered with excessively.

Keep the eggs clean. Perspiration or grease from the
hands is not good because it can stop up the pores of
the shells.

After each temperature adjustment, allow ample time
for temperature to stabilize.

Avoid opening the lid after each hatch.

Albumen



Chick develops in this fluid
Food and protein for the chick
Chalaza


Turns as the chick is rotated
Allows yolk to turn so chick is always on top
INCUBATION

Large end up, small end
facing down
Pores are bigger and more
numerous
 Pores allow carbon dioxide and
moisture to be released, oxygen
to enter the egg shell


3 days before eggs are to
hatch

Remove from turner
Break Out= Cracking egg to see albumen
Tight albumen
High yolk
HOW THE CHICK HATCHES




Using its egg tooth (a tiny sharp horn on the top of its beak) the chick
pecks at the shell thousands of times. Finally it pips through the shell
and begins to breathe air directly from the outside. After it has made
a hole in the shell, the chick stops piping for a few hours and rests
while its lungs are getting used to the outside atmosphere.
There is a high level of carbon dioxide in the egg compared with the
outside environment. This actually causes the neck muscles of the
chick to jerk and allow him to peck through the eggshell.
After resting the chick continues to pip by beginning to turn slowly
inside the egg. As it turns, usually counter-clockwise, the egg tooth
continues to ship away. In about 5 hours, the chick has made about
three quarters of a turn inside the egg.
As the chick moves around the shell it begins pushing on the egg cap.
Squirming and struggling the chick pushes the cap for about one
hour. Finally it breaks free from the shell,still wet and panting.

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