EARLY WORK Describe Why MONDAY 1-31-11 the dairy farm tour. did the chicken cross the road? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vdFIXsrjkXI&feature=related (chicken dance) Monday, January 31st, 2011 ANIMAL SCIENCE- CHICKEN/EGG INDUSTRY Problem Statement What can Payton learn about the Chicken and Egg Industry? Objectives 1. Introduce poultry unit. 2. Discuss aspects of the chicken industry. ALWAYS GETS THE CHICKS WHY DID THE CHICKEN CROSS THE ROAD? POULTRY ENTERPRISES Three General Types of Chicken Enterprises 1. Egg Production Laying hens produce eggs Confined cages or free-range After production cycle, hens sold for meat 2. Broiler Production Raising chickens for meat High quality rations fed to secure rapid, efficient gains 3. Replacement Pullets Raising chicks for egg production or broiler production PRODUCTION/CONSUMPTION TRENDS # of farms with laying hens decreased # of chickens raised per farm increased Eggs-- Slight decline in popularity Cholesterol concerns Chicken Meat– Major increase in popularity Perceived to have less cholesterol than beef/pork Leading States Laying Hens & Egg Production VIDEOS http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8zbkkkn_PxE &feature=related Chick Production http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aJ7rrHYmFiQ Broiler Production POULTRY TERMS CHICKENS Gallus CHICKENS Male- Not castrated, Can be a father Rooster Male- Castrated, Cannot father Capon CHICKENS Female- Has had offspring Hen Female- Has not had offspring Pullet Young Male or Female Offspring Chick CHICKENS Parturition Hatching/Laying Gestation 21 days POULTRY ANATOMY EARLY WORK WEDNESDAY 2-2-11 Which came first… the chicken or the egg? Which area of the United States is the Poultry industry heavily concentrated? Wednesday, February 2nd, 2011 ANIMAL SCIENCE- CHICKEN/EGG INDUSTRY Problem Statement What equipment could Brennan use in the PoultryIndustry? Objectives 1. Identify Poultry Industry equipment. 2. View Mike Rowe clip about Egg Farming. BEAK TRIMMER Trims peak Machine with foot pedal CHICK STARTER FEEDER Feeding dish for baby chicks CHICKEN FEEDER Feeding dish for older chicks EGG SCALE Weighs and classifies eggs LEG BANDS Identification tool Circular, numbered bands OPEN JUG WATERER Watering dish NIPPLE WATERER Watering device Minimizes waste 3 TIER COOP Layered chicken cages ADVANTAGES TO RAISING POULTRY High feed efficiency Fast return on investment Low land requirements Mechanized operation DISADVANTAGES TO RAISING POULTRY Disease and parasites Initial capital investment is high Limitations of zoning Death losses from predators Waste disposal and odor EARLY WORK THURSDAY 2-3-11 What are leg bands used for in the poultry industry? What is the purpose of an egg scale? Thursday, February 3nd, 2011 ANIMAL SCIENCE- CHICKEN/EGG INDUSTRY Problem Statement What are the most common breeds of chickens? Objectives 1. Identify chickens breeds. 2. Create chicken breed profile page. BLACK COCHIN SILVER CAMPINE WHITE DORKING GREY JUNGLE FOWL SINGLE-COMB WHITE LEGHORN TURKEN NEW HAMPSHIRE RED RHODE ISLAND RED WHITE-CRESTED BLACK POLISH SUMATRA WHITE-FACED BLACK SPANISH FACEBOOK CHICKEN PROFILE PAGE EARLY WORK FRIDAY 2-4-11 Which breed of chicken did you do your Facebook Profile page about? What is the relationship status of your chicken? What color of eggs does your chicken lay? Friday, February 4th, 2011 ANIMAL SCIENCE- CHICKEN/EGG INDUSTRY Problem Statement What can Roger learn about the egg industry? Objectives 1. Identify anatomy of an egg. 2. Examine internal and external egg parts. EGG ANATOMY EGGS AIR CELL -Blunt end -Contraction of egg during cooling -Size increases as egg ages GERMINAL DISC -genetic information from female -sperm fertilizes egg within the germinal disk -white spot on the yolk THICK AND THIN ALBUMEN -egg white -source of protein CHALAZA -Twisted and cord like - Anchors yolk in center of egg SHELL - Calcium Carbonate -Has pores -Color determined by breed SHELL MEMBRANES -Attached to shell -Encloses contents -Protects albumen from bacteria VITELLINE (YOLK) MEMBRANE - Surrounds and seals in the yolk -thin, elastic YOLK - Color varies by feed source - Source of vitamins, minerals & fat GRADES OF EGGS Appearance determines grade External and Internal AA A B Inedible EGGS AA Clean, no cracks, correct shape Albumen tight around yolk A Mostly good, clean Albumen a little spread out B Not clean, misshapen Albumen spread out, flat yolk CLASSES Ounces of weight/Dozen Eggs Jumbo= 30 oz. Extra Large= 27 oz. Large= 24 oz. Medium= 21 oz. Small= 18 oz. Peewee= 15 oz. EXTERNAL Clean Shape Cages Scratches Cracks Weak Spots INTERNAL Candling= shine bright light through egg Identify defects Yolk Color Blood Spots Size of air cell Embryonic development BLOOD SPOTS *Capillary burst in reproductive system *Doesn’t mean embryo is growing AIR CELL SIZE Larger = older New Eggs= Float Old Eggs= Sink http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NDWSnAsW or0&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=20inTZvPZP 4 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BjDQ8QXB7 cg&feature=related EARLY WORK TUESDAY 2-8-11 What did your parents say when you described the internal egg to them? What is candling? What are the 3 main grades of eggs? Which is best? Monday, February 8th, 2011 ANIMAL SCIENCE- CANDLING/INCUBATION Problem Statement How will Cameron candle and incubate eggs? Objectives 1. Identify candling techniques and incubation guidelines. 2. Candle and label eggs. 3. Starts eggs in the incubator. CANDLING EGGS Shining a light through eggs to determine internal characteristics Freshly laid egg is about 107 degreessame as hen Egg cools to surrounding temperatures, egg contents shrink, shell remains the same, more pores at the large end of the egg– air enters and fills the space left by shrinking contents Chicken pips through membranes to air cell– first breath of air in this space AIR CELL Increases during incubation Not too small Chick will be strangled on fluids Not too big Fluids will be dried up and chick will be weak and may stick to the shell INCUBATION Heating of eggs to hatch chicks INCUBATION OF EGGS Dry Bulb 100 degrees heat Wet Bulb 86 degrees humidity Humidity Too high= chick drowns in fluids Too low= chick sticks to side of shell HATCHING Do not bother the thermostat unless it is absolutely necessary. The working of the machine may be affected if the thermostat is tampered with excessively. Keep the eggs clean. Perspiration or grease from the hands is not good because it can stop up the pores of the shells. After each temperature adjustment, allow ample time for temperature to stabilize. Avoid opening the lid after each hatch. Albumen Chick develops in this fluid Food and protein for the chick Chalaza Turns as the chick is rotated Allows yolk to turn so chick is always on top INCUBATION Large end up, small end facing down Pores are bigger and more numerous Pores allow carbon dioxide and moisture to be released, oxygen to enter the egg shell 3 days before eggs are to hatch Remove from turner Break Out= Cracking egg to see albumen Tight albumen High yolk HOW THE CHICK HATCHES Using its egg tooth (a tiny sharp horn on the top of its beak) the chick pecks at the shell thousands of times. Finally it pips through the shell and begins to breathe air directly from the outside. After it has made a hole in the shell, the chick stops piping for a few hours and rests while its lungs are getting used to the outside atmosphere. There is a high level of carbon dioxide in the egg compared with the outside environment. This actually causes the neck muscles of the chick to jerk and allow him to peck through the eggshell. After resting the chick continues to pip by beginning to turn slowly inside the egg. As it turns, usually counter-clockwise, the egg tooth continues to ship away. In about 5 hours, the chick has made about three quarters of a turn inside the egg. As the chick moves around the shell it begins pushing on the egg cap. Squirming and struggling the chick pushes the cap for about one hour. Finally it breaks free from the shell,still wet and panting.