Importance of Nutrition: Food is Fuel Ashley Binns, M.S. University of Arkansas Ph.D. Student – Exercise Science Nutrition Overview • Macronutrients & their role in athletic performance • Food sources & why they’re important • Energy systems • Hydration • Putting it all together Macronutrient: Carbohydrate • The body’s preferred energy source • Two types (exogenous): – Simple: • • • • Rapidly increase blood sugar levels Provide quick energy Good options for pre- and post-workout Slow digestion by comparing with PRO – Complex: • Slowly released into blood • Have a higher fiber content • Better during meals, not during workouts • Endogenous carbohydrate – Muscle glycogen: carbohydrate stored in the muscle – Liver glycogen: carbohydrate stored in the liver Carbohydrate: Food Choice Checklist 1st Choice • Vegetables: asparagus, avocado, kidney beans, peppers, carrots • Fruits: apple apricots, bananas, mango, peach, pear • Grains: popcorn, steel cut oats, whole wheat, brown rice, wild rice 2nd Choice • Vegetables: acorn squash, baked potato, pumpkin, spaghetti squash, baked beans • Fruits: fruit juices, dried fruits • Grains: corn tortillas, couscous, whole grain pancakes, whole grain pasta/waffles/pas ta, whole wheat crackers 3rd Choice • • • • • • • • • Potato chips Corn bread Rice cakes White bagel/bread White rice French bread Flour tortillas Cake, candy Cookies, ice cream, pie • Soda • Honey Macronutrient: Protein • The building blocks of human and animal structure • Functions include: – Formation of the brain, nervous system, blood, muscle, skin, and hair – Transport mechanism for iron, vitamins, minerals and oxygen – Needed for muscle growth and to repair muscle after exercise – Helps decrease soreness & fatigue – Helps with satiety. Protein: Food Choice Checklist 1st Choice • • • • • Lean beef: flank steak, sirloin, tenderloin, rump roast, ~90% lean ground beef Lean pork: pork loin, tenderloin, center loin Poultry: skinless chicken breast, turkey cutlets, ~90% lean ground Seafood: salmon, tuna, cod, trout, shrimp, catfish Dairy: skim milk, lowfat cottage cheese, low-fat plain yogurt 2nd Choice • • • • • • • • 85% lean ground beef, turkey, chicken Dark meat chicken Beef prime ribs, beef short ribs Ground lamb Pheasant with skin Roasted chicken with skin 1% or 2% milk or cottage cheese Whole egg 3rd Choice • • • • • • • • • Bacon Bologna Chicken fried steak Hot dogs Salami Summer sausage Breakfast sausage Buffalo wings Beef ribs, pork ribs, 70% lean ground pork or beef • Ice cream, whip cream, whole milk Protein: Plant Sources • • • • • • • • • Almonds Black beans Black eyed peas Brown rice Chick peas Couscous Garbonzo beans Hummus Lentils • • • • • • • • • Lima beans Peanut butter Pecans Pinto beans Quinoa Pistachios Soy burger Soy beans Spinach Macronutrient: Fat • The most energy-dense macronutrient (based on kcal/g) • Functions include: – Insulation – Cell structure – Nerve transmission – Vitamin absorption – Hormone production Fats: Food Choice Checklist Monounsaturated Fats • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Almonds (oil) Avocados Brazil nuts Canola oil Cashews Ground flaxseed Hazelnuts Macadamias Olive oil Peanut butter Peanut oil Pecans Pistachios Pumpkin seeds Polyunsaturated Fats • Omega-3: Alaska king crab, Atlantic herring, ground flaxseeds, pecans, pine nuts, Pollock, scallop, shrimp, whitefish, wild salmon • Omega-6: corn oil, cottonseed oil, peanut oil, safflower oil, soybean oil, sunflower seeds Saturated Fats • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Alfredo sauce Bacon, bologna, bratwurst Butter Cake Cheese sauces Chocolate Coconut oil Cookies Cream cheese Creamy sauces Fried chicken Ice cream Mayonnaise Etc. How to make healthy food choices MOST SLIGHTLY PROCESSED LEAST PROCESSED Why are these food choices important? • Lets think through it: – Food is fuel and hunger is your body’s request for fuel • Carbohydrates: – Major source of energy for the body – Includes sugars, starches, and dietary fibers • Proteins: – Help build and maintain body structures and regulate body processes • Fats: – – – – Provide structure for the body Carry fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) Provide the starting material for making many hormones Can be used as fuel if enough oxygen is present With Exercise… • …our bodies utilize different energy sources depending on: – Exercise intensity – Exercise duration Energy Systems Overview Energy System Used How Long Used For Example of Exercise Food Source Ratio Used Adenosine Triphosphate & Creatine Phosphate (ATP/PC) System ~2-5 minutes of activity 100-200 yd distances – backstroke, breaststroke, butterfly and freestyle Glycolytic System ~20 minutes of activity 800-1800 yds – freestyle 55% carbohydrate 30% protein 15% fat ~45 minutes of activity Long distance events (triathlons), synchronized swimming, and water polo 60% carbohydrate 20% protein 20% fat Oxidative Energy System 55% carbohydrate 25% protein 20% fat Hydration • Our bodies are made up of 80% water • Water is essential for: – Nutrient absorption – Body temperature regulation – Protection of vital organs – Serves as a medium for biochemical reactions – Maintains a high blood volume for optimal athletic performance • If fluid intake does not meet the demands of fluid losses, dehydration can occur Effects of Dehydration • Percent Body Weight Lost • 0-1% Thirst • 2% Stronger thirst, vague discomfort, loss of appetite • 3% Decreasing blood volume, impaired physical performance • 4% Increased effort for physical work, nausea • 5% Difficulty in concentrating • 6% Failure to regulate excess temperature • 7-8% Dizziness, labored breathing w/ activity, increased weakness • 9-10% Muscle spasms, delirium, and wakefulness • 11% Inability of decreased blood volume to circulate normally, failing renal function Hydration Tips • Try to develop some type of water “schedule” • Although you may not notice that you are sweating in the pool, 30 mins in humidity can lead to dehydration • Drink: – 2 cups of water 2 hours before practice – 5-10 oz. of water every 15-20 minutes during practice • 1 medium mouthful = ~ 1 oz. – 2-3 cups of fluid for every pound of body weight lost • Sports Drinks – Best used for practices lasting > 1 hr. Putting it all together… • • • • Pre-workout During workout Post-workout Hydration Food Timing • Important for adequate energy during workouts! – Aim to consume either a meal or snack every 3-4 hrs. – 2-4 hrs before practice: meal(s) – 30 mins before practice: small CHO snack • Develop food familiarity – Don’t try new foods on or close to a competition day if you are unsure of how your body will react. • Try to pre-plan your day to make sure you properly fuel your body. Pre-Workout • Immediately before a workout (30 min– 1 hr) – CHO rich snack or meal • Liquid meal replacements an option – Small amount of PRO • Will decrease postexercise muscle soreness – Low fiber & fat content • Decrease transit time • Decrease gastric upset • Pre-Workout Snack Ideas: – Piece of fruit (i.e. banana) – Cottage cheese + with crackers – Granola bar – Low-fat yogurt and banana or raisins – Graham crackers + peanut butter + low-fat chocolate milk – Cinnamon raisin mini-bagel spread with 1 Tbsp. peanut butter During Workout • Combination of CHO, PRO, & Electrolytes – Easily chewable, bite-sized foods • Ex: pieces of granola bar/sports bar, sports gels, pieces of fruit • Fluid Replacement – Water & Sports drinks • Work on Timing – Takes time to learn what works best for you – Experiment during practices that are less rigorous and not immediately before a meet • Raw nuts/seeds (ex: 15 almonds, 20 peanuts, 30 pistachios) • Lean beef jerky • Dried fruit • Peanut butter sandwich • Energy bar or granola bar (watch sugar content) • Dried apricots + ¼ c. nuts (e.g. peanuts, almonds, etc) • Apple slices + cheddar cheese • Whole wheat pita + hummus Post-Workout • Begin recovery with a snack or meal within 15-60 min • Replace muscle fuel (CHO) – Snack Ideas: • Sports drink and/or protein/sports bar • Graham crackers with peanut butter • Chocolate milk & banana • Fruit & yogurt smoothie • Replenish water and electrolyte losses • Meal Ideas: – Rice bowl with beans, cheese, salsa, avocado + whole grain tortilla chips or whole wheat tortilla – Stir fry with lean steak, broccoli, bell peppers, carrots + brown rice – Whole wheat pita sandwich with turkey and veggies + pretzels + low-fat milk – Salmon with roasted vegetables and brown rice Hydration • Before practice: – 2 cups of water 2 hours • During practice: – 5-10 oz. of water every 15-20 minutes • 1 medium mouthful = ~ 1 oz. • After practice: – 2-3 cups of fluid for every pound of body weight lost • Sports Drinks – Best used for practices lasting > 1 hr. OR when food source not available during/following exercise Questions? Ashley Binns, M.S. University of Arkansas [email protected] (210) 216-3719 References • http://wwww.usaswimming.org • www.eatright.org (American Dietetic Association) • Clark, N. (2008). Nancy Clark’s Sports Nutrition Guidebook (4th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. • Dunford, M.D. (Ed.). (2006). Sports Nutrition: A Practice Manual for Professionals (4th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. • Insel, P. (2006). Discovering Nutrition (2nd ed.). Jones and Barlett Publishers, Inc. • Litt, A. (2004). Fuel for Young Athletes. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. • www.scandpg.org [Sports, Cardiovascular, and Wellness Nutrition (SCAN)] • Rosenloom, C.A. (Ed.). (2006). Sports Nutrition: Client Education Handouts. American Dietetics Association.