Nutrition Presentation

Report
Importance of Nutrition:
Food is Fuel
Ashley Binns, M.S.
University of Arkansas
Ph.D. Student – Exercise Science
Nutrition Overview
• Macronutrients & their role in athletic
performance
• Food sources & why they’re important
• Energy systems
• Hydration
• Putting it all together
Macronutrient: Carbohydrate
• The body’s preferred energy source
• Two types (exogenous):
– Simple:
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Rapidly increase blood sugar levels
Provide quick energy
Good options for pre- and post-workout
Slow digestion by comparing with PRO
– Complex:
• Slowly released into blood
• Have a higher fiber content
• Better during meals, not during workouts
• Endogenous carbohydrate
– Muscle glycogen: carbohydrate stored in the muscle
– Liver glycogen: carbohydrate stored in the liver
Carbohydrate: Food Choice Checklist
1st Choice
• Vegetables:
asparagus,
avocado, kidney
beans, peppers,
carrots
• Fruits: apple
apricots, bananas,
mango, peach,
pear
• Grains: popcorn,
steel cut oats,
whole wheat,
brown rice, wild
rice
2nd Choice
• Vegetables: acorn
squash, baked
potato, pumpkin,
spaghetti squash,
baked beans
• Fruits: fruit juices,
dried fruits
• Grains: corn
tortillas,
couscous, whole
grain pancakes,
whole grain
pasta/waffles/pas
ta, whole wheat
crackers
3rd Choice
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Potato chips
Corn bread
Rice cakes
White bagel/bread
White rice
French bread
Flour tortillas
Cake, candy
Cookies, ice cream,
pie
• Soda
• Honey
Macronutrient: Protein
• The building blocks of human and animal
structure
• Functions include:
– Formation of the brain, nervous system, blood,
muscle, skin, and hair
– Transport mechanism for iron, vitamins, minerals and
oxygen
– Needed for muscle growth and to repair muscle after
exercise
– Helps decrease soreness & fatigue
– Helps with satiety.
Protein: Food Choice Checklist
1st Choice
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Lean beef: flank
steak, sirloin,
tenderloin, rump
roast, ~90% lean
ground beef
Lean pork: pork loin,
tenderloin, center
loin
Poultry: skinless
chicken breast, turkey
cutlets, ~90% lean
ground
Seafood: salmon,
tuna, cod, trout,
shrimp, catfish
Dairy: skim milk, lowfat cottage cheese,
low-fat plain yogurt
2nd Choice
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85% lean ground
beef, turkey, chicken
Dark meat chicken
Beef prime ribs, beef
short ribs
Ground lamb
Pheasant with skin
Roasted chicken with
skin
1% or 2% milk or
cottage cheese
Whole egg
3rd Choice
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Bacon
Bologna
Chicken fried steak
Hot dogs
Salami
Summer sausage
Breakfast sausage
Buffalo wings
Beef ribs, pork ribs,
70% lean ground
pork or beef
• Ice cream, whip
cream, whole milk
Protein: Plant Sources
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Almonds
Black beans
Black eyed peas
Brown rice
Chick peas
Couscous
Garbonzo beans
Hummus
Lentils
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Lima beans
Peanut butter
Pecans
Pinto beans
Quinoa
Pistachios
Soy burger
Soy beans
Spinach
Macronutrient: Fat
• The most energy-dense macronutrient (based
on kcal/g)
• Functions include:
– Insulation
– Cell structure
– Nerve transmission
– Vitamin absorption
– Hormone production
Fats: Food Choice Checklist
Monounsaturated
Fats
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Almonds (oil)
Avocados
Brazil nuts
Canola oil
Cashews
Ground flaxseed
Hazelnuts
Macadamias
Olive oil
Peanut butter
Peanut oil
Pecans
Pistachios
Pumpkin seeds
Polyunsaturated
Fats
• Omega-3: Alaska
king crab, Atlantic
herring, ground
flaxseeds, pecans,
pine nuts, Pollock,
scallop, shrimp,
whitefish, wild
salmon
• Omega-6: corn oil,
cottonseed oil,
peanut oil,
safflower oil,
soybean oil,
sunflower seeds
Saturated Fats
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Alfredo sauce
Bacon, bologna,
bratwurst
Butter
Cake
Cheese sauces
Chocolate
Coconut oil
Cookies
Cream cheese
Creamy sauces
Fried chicken
Ice cream
Mayonnaise
Etc.
How to make healthy food choices
MOST
SLIGHTLY
PROCESSED
LEAST PROCESSED
Why are these food choices
important?
• Lets think through it:
– Food is fuel and hunger is your body’s request for fuel
• Carbohydrates:
– Major source of energy for the body
– Includes sugars, starches, and dietary fibers
• Proteins:
– Help build and maintain body structures and regulate body
processes
• Fats:
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Provide structure for the body
Carry fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K)
Provide the starting material for making many hormones
Can be used as fuel if enough oxygen is present
With Exercise…
• …our bodies utilize different energy sources
depending on:
– Exercise intensity
– Exercise duration
Energy Systems Overview
Energy System
Used
How Long Used For Example of Exercise
Food Source Ratio
Used
Adenosine
Triphosphate &
Creatine Phosphate
(ATP/PC) System
~2-5 minutes of
activity
100-200 yd
distances –
backstroke,
breaststroke,
butterfly and
freestyle
Glycolytic System
~20 minutes of
activity
800-1800 yds –
freestyle
55% carbohydrate
30% protein
15% fat
~45 minutes of
activity
Long distance
events (triathlons),
synchronized
swimming, and
water polo
60% carbohydrate
20% protein
20% fat
Oxidative Energy
System
55% carbohydrate
25% protein
20% fat
Hydration
• Our bodies are made up of 80% water
• Water is essential for:
– Nutrient absorption
– Body temperature regulation
– Protection of vital organs
– Serves as a medium for biochemical reactions
– Maintains a high blood volume for optimal athletic
performance
• If fluid intake does not meet the demands of
fluid losses, dehydration can occur
Effects of Dehydration
•
Percent Body Weight Lost
• 0-1% Thirst
• 2% Stronger thirst, vague discomfort, loss of
appetite
• 3% Decreasing blood volume, impaired
physical performance
• 4% Increased effort for physical work,
nausea
• 5% Difficulty in concentrating
• 6% Failure to regulate excess temperature
• 7-8% Dizziness, labored breathing w/ activity,
increased weakness
• 9-10% Muscle spasms, delirium, and
wakefulness
• 11% Inability of decreased blood volume to circulate
normally, failing renal function
Hydration Tips
• Try to develop some type of water “schedule”
• Although you may not notice that you are
sweating in the pool, 30 mins in humidity can
lead to dehydration
• Drink:
– 2 cups of water 2 hours before practice
– 5-10 oz. of water every 15-20 minutes during practice
• 1 medium mouthful = ~ 1 oz.
– 2-3 cups of fluid for every pound of body weight lost
• Sports Drinks
– Best used for practices lasting > 1 hr.
Putting it all together…
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Pre-workout
During workout
Post-workout
Hydration
Food Timing
• Important for adequate energy during workouts!
– Aim to consume either a meal or snack every 3-4 hrs.
– 2-4 hrs before practice: meal(s)
– 30 mins before practice: small CHO snack
• Develop food familiarity
– Don’t try new foods on or close to a competition day
if you are unsure of how your body will react.
• Try to pre-plan your day to make sure you
properly fuel your body.
Pre-Workout
• Immediately before a
workout (30 min– 1 hr)
– CHO rich snack or meal
• Liquid meal
replacements an option
– Small amount of PRO
• Will decrease postexercise muscle
soreness
– Low fiber & fat content
• Decrease transit time
• Decrease gastric upset
• Pre-Workout Snack
Ideas:
– Piece of fruit (i.e. banana)
– Cottage cheese + with
crackers
– Granola bar
– Low-fat yogurt and banana
or raisins
– Graham crackers + peanut
butter + low-fat chocolate
milk
– Cinnamon raisin mini-bagel
spread with 1 Tbsp. peanut
butter
During Workout
• Combination of CHO, PRO, &
Electrolytes
– Easily chewable, bite-sized
foods
• Ex: pieces of granola bar/sports
bar, sports gels, pieces of fruit
• Fluid Replacement
– Water & Sports drinks
• Work on Timing
– Takes time to learn what works
best for you
– Experiment during practices
that are less rigorous and not
immediately before a meet
• Raw nuts/seeds (ex: 15
almonds, 20 peanuts, 30
pistachios)
• Lean beef jerky
• Dried fruit
• Peanut butter sandwich
• Energy bar or granola bar
(watch sugar content)
• Dried apricots + ¼ c. nuts (e.g.
peanuts, almonds, etc)
• Apple slices + cheddar cheese
• Whole wheat pita + hummus
Post-Workout
• Begin recovery with a snack or
meal within 15-60 min
• Replace muscle fuel (CHO)
– Snack Ideas:
• Sports drink and/or
protein/sports bar
• Graham crackers with
peanut butter
• Chocolate milk &
banana
• Fruit & yogurt
smoothie
• Replenish water and
electrolyte losses
• Meal Ideas:
– Rice bowl with beans, cheese,
salsa, avocado + whole grain
tortilla chips or whole wheat
tortilla
– Stir fry with lean steak,
broccoli, bell peppers, carrots
+ brown rice
– Whole wheat pita sandwich
with turkey and veggies +
pretzels + low-fat milk
– Salmon with roasted
vegetables and brown rice
Hydration
• Before practice:
– 2 cups of water 2 hours
• During practice:
– 5-10 oz. of water every 15-20 minutes
• 1 medium mouthful = ~ 1 oz.
• After practice:
– 2-3 cups of fluid for every pound of body weight lost
• Sports Drinks
– Best used for practices lasting > 1 hr. OR when food
source not available during/following exercise
Questions?
Ashley Binns, M.S.
University of Arkansas
[email protected]
(210) 216-3719
References
• http://wwww.usaswimming.org
• www.eatright.org (American Dietetic Association)
• Clark, N. (2008). Nancy Clark’s Sports Nutrition Guidebook (4th ed.).
Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
• Dunford, M.D. (Ed.). (2006). Sports Nutrition: A Practice Manual for
Professionals (4th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
• Insel, P. (2006). Discovering Nutrition (2nd ed.). Jones and Barlett
Publishers, Inc.
• Litt, A. (2004). Fuel for Young Athletes. Champaign, IL: Human
Kinetics.
• www.scandpg.org [Sports, Cardiovascular, and Wellness Nutrition
(SCAN)]
• Rosenloom, C.A. (Ed.). (2006). Sports Nutrition: Client Education
Handouts. American Dietetics Association.

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