The People’s Party The Grange Movement An early farm organization First organized in the 1870s in the Midwest, the south, and Texas. Set up cooperative associations. Social and economic needs. Succeeded in lobbying for “Granger Laws.” Rapidly declined by the late 1870s. WHAT it did for Farmers? 1. Cooperative Movement- provided farmers a social network pooled their money to make shared purchases of machinery, supplies, insurance, etc. HOW? 2.Worked for pro-farmer laws- an early national farm organization, worked for mutual welfare of farmers. Examples: Interstate Commerce Act-regulate railroad rates and railroads. PROBLEMS OF FARMERS Specialization of crops-Farmers only raise one crop(leads to trouble if that crop has problems) Disasters Floods, boll-weevil, & grasshoppers Political movement that tried to help out the nation’s struggling farmers 1. Mechanization - More machines = more debt 2. New Farm Land More land (on credit) = more debt GOLDGOLD BUGSBUGS SILVERITESSILVERITES WHO THEY WERE BANKERS AND BUSINESS MEN FARMERS AND LABORERS WHAT THEY WANTED GOLD STANDARD ~ less in circulation, increase the value ~currency backed by Gold is more stable. BIMETALISM ~more money in circulation ~currency backed by Gold & Silver, cheap money. LOANS would be repaid in stable money. PRODUCTS would be sold at higher prices. DEFLATION ~prices fall ~value of money increases ~fewer people have money INFLATION ~prices rise ~value of money decreases ~more money in circulation WHY EFFECTS 1. System of “sub-treasuries.” 2. Abolition of the National Bank. 3. Direct election of Senators. 4. Govt. ownership of RRs, telephone & telegraph companies. 5. Government-operated postal savings banks. 6. Restriction of undesirable immigration. 7. 8-hour work day for government employees. 8. Abolition of the Pinkerton detective agency. 9. Australian secret ballot. 10. Re-monetization of silver. 11. A single term for President & Vice President. PRESIDENCY: Wanted a single term for President and Vice President Backed candidate William Jennings Bryan MONEY: Wanted to inflate the currency by either printing paper money or coining silver(BIMETALISM…KNOW THIS WORD!) TAX: Wanted a GRADUATED FEDERAL INCOME TAX(we have this today…Amendment #16) It would take a higher proportion of large incomes than of small incomes. The more you make the more the government takes. IMMIGRATION: Wanted to restrict immigration Too much over production and under consumption VOTING: A Secret ballot to end voter fraud. Wanted to institute: 1. Initiative- a law comes from the people and is introduced into government 2. Recall-the people can petition to take a politician out of office before his term is up 3. Referendum-law makes it pass legislation and take it to the people to get their opinion. SENATORS: Wanted direct election of senators instead of by state legislation(Amendment #17) Increased people’s ability to participate in the government. GOVERNMENT OWNERSHIP OF: Called for government ownership & operation of the railroads, telegraph and telephone system. Munn Vs. Illinois- case that stated the state has the right to regulate a private business if it is for the public good. WORKDAY: Wanted an 8 hour work day Bread and Butter Goals used to attract more than just farmers if they wanted to be successful. WHY? Populist believed that this would solve nearly all of the farmer’s problems. WHAT? They wanted to use both silver and gold coins, thus increasing the amount of money in the country. All money would be worth less, a situation that was bad for creditors (big banks) and good for debtors(farmers). William Jennings Bryan Ran as a Populist President in 1896 on platform of Free Silver Big business opposes his run, Republicans win the White House & Populist fade away. You come to us and tell us that the great cities are in favor of the gold standard. I tell you that the great cities rest upon these broad and fertile prairies. Burn down your cities and leave our farms, and your cities will spring up again as if by magic. But destroy our farms and the grass will grow in the streets of every city in the country. …we shall answer their demands for a gold standard by saying to them, you shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns. You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold. Congressman from Nebraska, three-time presidential candidate (1896, 1900, and 1908), and later Secretary of State under President Woodrow Wilson President Woodrow Wilson appointed him Secretary of State in 1913, but Wilson's handling of the Lusitania crisis in 1915 caused Bryan to resign in protest. •The depression of the 1890s was the worst in U.S. history up to that time. Farm prices sunk to new lows. Unemployment caused havoc, desperation and union militancy among the urban working class. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz was written as an allegory to the situation that was happening in the Midwest. Every main character can be traced to either a particular person or group of people. Even the word “Oz” is used to represent the measurement of gold. Represents the dehumanized industrial worker. He is turned into a machine back the industrialists because of his hard work ethic and not having another craft to succeed in. He eventually becomes unable to love. Represents William Jennings Bryan, having a loud roar but was unable to back it up (bite). Although the silver had been lost, the important message is a return to the Midwest farmer/family. It is where true happiness remains. Back in Oz, the Scarecrow now runs the Emerald City, the Tin man rules in the west, and the Lion rules over smaller animals in the forest. Power has been returned to the people. Represents the Western industrial influence and is ultimately destroyed by water (representing pure nature, a removal of machines). Although the silver had been lost, the important message is a return to the Midwest farmer/family. It is where true happiness remains. Back in Oz, the Scarecrow now runs the Emerald City. the Tin man rules in the west. the Lion rules over smaller animals in the forest. Power has been returned to the people. Munn vs. Illinois (1877)- case that stated the state has the right to regulate a private business if it is for the public good. Wabash, St. Louis, & Pacific Railroad Company vs. Illinois (1886)- case that severely limited the rights of states to control interstate commerce. It led to the creation of the Interstate Commerce commission.