Unlocking the Mysteries of Making Candi Sugar

Unlocking the Mysteries of
Making Candi Sugar
Some Right, and “Not So
Correct” Techniques and Ideas
to Boost the Flavor and
Complexity of Your Beer
Modified Sugars Used for
• Belgians used both invert and “Candi”
sugars for confectioneries and
• England used caramelized sugars for
many of their beers.
• Sugar browning reactions happen in
moderate and long kettle boils.
So What’s Caramelization?
• Caramelization is
destruction of
“reducing” sugars by
carbonization (heat).
• No enzymatic reactions
• English beers use
cooked sugars (Lyles
Golden Sugar, Treacle).
Invert Sugar (WTH?)
• Process of converting
sucrose into fructose &
• Sucrose is “nonreducing, so will burn &
not caramelize well.
• Inverting happens with
heat, or acid condition.
• Invert sugar is not
“Belgian Candi Sugar”
How to Make Invert Sugar
• In a pan with 5x more capacity
than the volume of sugar/water,
add 10% distilled or RO water to
sucrose plus 1/4tsp cream of
tartar, or citric acid (acid not
needed when experienced), stir.
• Monitor temperature while heating
on low, with lid off & stir
• Slow down heating when sugar
gets to 235F. Put on lid. Let vent.
• Maintain that temp ramp for 15-20
min, don’t go above 280F.
*Tip: A turkey
with remote
probe works
well for
This will keep
the display out
of the pan’s
steam, for easy
Caramelizing Invert Sugar
• Browning reaction/flavor needs
alkaline conditions (reduces
burning of sugar at high temps).
• Calcium Hydroxide (CaOH2)(pickling lime) most common but
NaOH, KOH, NH3OH can be used,
albeit more dangerous from
chemical safety standpoint
• Reaction happens quickly after
adding alkaline material.
*Tip: Pickling
lime has limited
solubility. Add
lime to water &
let it clear over
10+ minutes,
then use only
the liquid to
avoid mineral
Caramelizing Process
• Sucrose inverted, heat reduced.
(Eyewear, gloves recommended!).
• Limewater slowly added, stirred.
• Heat mixture on low, monitor temp &
go above 275F+ for dark caramel.
• Have shallow cup ice water to drop
sugar into, to taste, as browning
progresses. Add limewater again.
• 300F+ produces darkest sugar.
• Monitor burnt sugar notes!
• Can pour onto non-stick cookie sheet
for hard sugar, or carefully add back
water to make syrup.
*Tip: When
inverting is
there will be a
change in
aroma to a
more fruity
note, similar
to cooking
Belgian-Style Candi Sugar
• Uses more complex Maillard
Browning, not enzymatic.
• Needs reducing sugar and
amino acids (Cu ions help!).
• Beet sugar OR cane sugar
works equally well!
• Most complex (and tasty IMO)
of the sugar browning
• Many candies & syrups use
Maillard Browning Reactions
Candi Sugar Ingredients
• Invert is “base sugar” for Candi.
• Other partial addition sugars such as
date, coconut, maple, etc, add amino
acids, add flavor complexity.
• Wheat, Barley malt liquid, or extract,
a favorite due to flavor, amino acids.
• Start with 10% to invert, to taste.
• Other amino acid sources such as
whey powder, apple cider, (DAP) are
Making Candi Sugar
• After inverting sucrose, remove from
heat, add source for alkaline syrup
(Mix lime with water, let settle and
use liquid, not undissolved solids).
• Remove from heat, slowly add amino
acid source (malt, date sugar, apple •
cider, etc. Recommended to make a
water solution to enhance mixing.
• Heat slowly, after 260F, monitor taste
by dropping candi into ice water.
• Can go over 295F to get dark fruit
flavors. When syrup is to-taste, either
pour into a nonstick pan, or slowly
add water to make syrup (lower temp
candi won’t harden, so no choice)
*Tip: Using a
nonstick pan
and silicone
spatula will
burned sites
and ease
cleanup. Wear
gloves to
skin burns
from sugar.
Candi Starter Recipes
Light Candi Syrup
1. 1 lb invert sugar
2. 1 oz wheat malt (wort or
3. ¼ tsp cream of tartar
4. 3 grams (1/2 tsp lime) to
4 oz (100 mg) H2O
Dark Candi Syrup
• Replace wheat malt with date
sugar (recipe on left)
• Repeat steps 1-4
• Slowly heat to 295F, stirring
to avoid scorching bottom
layer of sugar.
• Take off heat source, add
5. After inverting, remove
back 2 oz limewater, repeat
from heat, add limewater
heating. (*Keeping mix
then malt, mix. Ramp temp
alkaline reduces burning of
to 270F. Cover with lid,
maintain temp for 30 min • Add final H2O for syrup or
or to taste. Cool, add 4 oz
place on cookie sheet for
H2O, pour into container.
hard candi.

similar documents