eggs What do I need to know about eggs related to selection, nutrition, and cooking methods? UNIT 5 eggs Like dairy products, eggs have nutritional value and offer versatility in cookery. 1 tablespoons worth of liquid, the egg yolk measures about____ 3 tablespoon * A whole egg is about ____ of liquid. 77 calories in a cooked egg. * There are about ____ 70 calories in an uncooked egg and ____ * China produces the most eggs, at about ____ 160 billion per year. 65 billion eggs per year. * In the US, about ____ 280 million hens produce more than ____ 250 eggs per year. * A hen can lay about ____ 1400 BC. * The chicken is one of the first domestic animals, appearing in China around ______ * The are some 150 ____ chicken species and hundreds of chicken breeds. * A chicken takes about ____ 24 hours to lay one egg. * Meringue topped pies should be baked at _____ 350 degrees for ___ 5 minutes. 7 to ___ 10 days. * Hard cooked eggs can safely be kept in the fridge ___ 2 hours lose moisture and quality as well as * Eggs that are kept at room temperature more than ____ being susceptible to bacterial growth. * Over _____________ 500,000,000 eggs have been recalled due to potential contamination by Salmonella. * A person infected with Salmonella enteritidis bacterium usually has abdominal cramps, & diarrhea beginning 12 ___ to 72 ___ hours after consuming a contaminated food or beverage. 4 to ___ 7 days, and most people recover without antibiotics. * The illness usually lasts ___ 10,000 eggs are internally contaminated with * In the Northeast U.S., approximately one in _________ Salmonella. 7 and11 * Most eggs are laid between ___ ___ a.m. 3 1400 250 160 2807 11 150 65 70 11 79 17,000 24 1 5000,000,000 10,000 350 15 4 7 12 72 7 10 2 UNIT 6 A way to describe the shell of the egg, which allows air to travel in/out of egg » Porous » Vitelline membrane » Air sac The membrane surrounding the yolk. The air sac is located at the blunt end of the egg. It is formed when the inner and outer membranes separate shortly after the egg is laid. » Outer shell » Chalaza » Yolk Is a porous covering which allows for exchange of moisture & gasses. Structure inside the egg that keeps the yolk in place. The yellow center of an egg; high in cholesterol (sat. fat) » Albumin Commonly called ‘the white’; fat free part of the egg » Germ cell Located within the yolk; gives rise to the gametes (sex cells) » Candling » Grades A procedure used to check interior quality of egg UNIT 6 Fluffy baked preparation made with a starch-thickened sauce into which stiffly beaten egg whites are folded in. Custard Mixture of milk, egg, sugar, and a flavoring that is cooked until thickened. Emulsion Mixture that forms when oil and liquid are combined. » Souffle » » » Weeping » Beading Layer of moisture that sometimes forms between a meringue and a filling. Golden droplets of moisture that sometimes form on a meringue. » Meringue Fluffy white mixture of beaten egg & sugar. » Omelet » Bloom Can be soft or hard. A beaten egg mixture that is cooked without stirring & served folded in half Coating on the egg shell that seals its pores…. Reduces moisture loss. » Coagulum Clumps of a protein food. Using your vocab notes, determine the names of parts of the egg: 8. 9. ACTIVATING STRATEGY chalaza 1. Albumin is 100% PROTEIN! 2. 58% white 31% yolk 11% shell 3. germ cell There are two light blue areas in the white (albumin) of the egg. The darker of the two is the thicker part of it. 7. 4. 6. 5. Vitelline membrane A very old egg will actually float in the water and should not be eaten. Structure of Eggs: Egg Notes – Eggcellent source of protein, therefore can be used in place of meat, poultry, fish – One of the few good sources of vitamin D – egg yolk – One of the highest sources of cholesterol (210 mg) Nutrition: – – – – – – Shell is porous. That feature allows for exchange of moisture & gasses. Color varies; depends on breed of chicken Membrane between shell & white – inner membrane contracts as moisture is lost Fresh egg has small air sac Hi proportion of thick white indicates high quality Changes during storage: – Air cell increases in size (moisture evaporates through porous shell) – Increased humidity reduces moisture loss – Sore blunt end up to avoid movement of air sac Candling – A procedure to check interior quality of egg. Due to salmonella food poisoning, do not use eggs in raw state. Sizes: determined by weight per dozen Grades: AA, A, B, C – – – – AA A B C thickest albumin Jumbo 30 oz. per dozen Extra large 27 oz. per dozen Large 24 oz. per dozen Medium 21 oz. per dozen Small 18 oz. per dozen Peewee 15 oz. per dozen What is the ‘bloom’ on an egg? BLOOM The coating or covering on the egg shell that seals its pores. Bloom, also called cuticle, helps to prevent bacteria from getting inside the shell and reduces moisture loss from the egg. Eggs are washed before they are sent to market. This is necessary for cleanliness, but it removes the bloom. To restore the protection, packers give the eggs a light coating of edible mineral oil. AA B Functions of eggs 1) 2) 3) 4) • • • • Add color to food 2 add flavor to food Thicken Bind food together 5) 6) 7) 8) Leaven Create foam Add nutrients Emulsify Eggs coagulate in heat (become firm and thicken) 79 calories in one medium egg Over cooking toughens the protein in eggs When whipping egg whites, even one drop of egg yolk will reduce the volume of the whites by 1/3rd! This is because yolks contain fat. Be cautious when separating eggs that no yolk mixes with whites. • To hard cook eggs (never say “Hard boil”!) • Place eggs in cold water • Heat to just below boiling point • Simmer 20 minutes • Cool immediately to avoid green ring around yolk Eggs – Study Guide 1. Label the following parts of the egg. 2. The _______ shell is a porous covering which keeps the air out of the egg. 3. Do not ______ wash eggs as this removes the coating (bloom). 4. T or F – The color of the egg shell does not effect the cooking performance or nutritive value. 5. The white should be ______ thick and stand up well around the yolk. yolk should be firm and well centered. 6. The _____ 7. The air cell between the shell and the membrane grows Smaller/Larger with age. proteinas well as minerals, vitamins, and fat. 8. Eggs are very high in ______ 9. Grading refers to the interior/exterior quality of eggs. 10. List the six sizes in which eggs may be purchased in order of largest to smallest: jumbo, extra large, large, medium, small, pee wee Eggs – Study Guide (cont.) 11. A fresh/stale egg will sink to the bottom in a pan of cold water. 12. When held to the light, a fresh egg will appear cloudy/clear. stale egg has a smooth, shiny shell fresh egg has a dull, rough shell, and a _____ 13. A _______ 14. Eggs should be placed in the ___________ refrigerator as quickly as possible after purchase. The following phrases may be found in various recipes. Explain how you would accomplish each: 15. Beat egg slightly – Use fork to break yolk and combine it with white 16. Beat eggs until thick – To beat with rotary or electric mixer until eggs thicken and become lighter in color 17. Beat egg whites until stiff – Separate egg, beat with rotary or electric mixer until egg whites are stiff, have a glossy appearance, and stand up in moist peaks 18. Two basic rules you must always keep in mind when cooking eggs are: a. Low heat b. Avoid over cooking 19. To ensure quality, the break-out test is often used in combination with candling. eggs broken and evaluated. Sample _______ from each shipment are _______ Dull shell Shell appearance? Smaller Air Cell Larger Air Cell Air Cell? Sinks in water Difficult to peel a hard cookedSink fresh egg When held to light, interior appears clear Albumin is thicker Shiny Shell / Floats in water (throw away) Easy to peel a hard cooked stale Float? egg Albumin? Peeling? When held to light, interior appears cloudy Albumin gets thinner Less nutritional value Nutrition? 1. List three reasons why eggs are so amazing. Healthy, nutritious, low cost, easy to find, fast & easy to prepare, great meals & snacks, versatile, popular 2. Amazing Eggs! List three steps eggs experience from the hen to your dinner table. (VHS) Laid, gathered mechanically, placed in containers, washed, sprayed w/ mineral oil, sorted, graded, packaged, sold in stores 3. Does egg size have any relationship to the quality of the egg? NO 4. List the six egg sizes: Jumbo, Ex. Lg., Lg., Med, Sm., Pee wee 5. List 3 nutrients in eggs: Vit. A, B-12, Riboflavin, Iron, Calcium, Thiamine, Niacin, Phosphorus, Iodine, Pantathenic Acid, Vit. D 6. List six functions of eggs. Leaven, bond, thicken, coat/glaze, clarify, emulsify, garnish, color, moisten, dry, flavor, add nutrient 7. List six ways to prepare eggs. Scrambled, fried, poached, hard cooked, soft cooked, baked, meringue, mayonnaise, omelet, frittata, sauce, souffle, french toast, custard, eggnog, custard ice cream, quiche http://www.ehow.com/ho w_7813921_stopmeringue-weeping.html Egg whites that are beaten (meringue) reach their best volume when the are beaten/whipped at ROOM TEMPERATURE!