EGGS

Report
eggs
What do I need to
know about eggs
related to selection,
nutrition, and cooking
methods?
UNIT
5
eggs
Like dairy products,
eggs have nutritional
value and offer
versatility in cookery.
1 tablespoons worth of liquid, the egg yolk measures about____
3 tablespoon
* A whole egg is about ____
of liquid.
77 calories in a cooked egg.
* There are about ____
70 calories in an uncooked egg and ____
* China produces the most eggs, at about ____
160 billion per year.
65 billion eggs per year.
* In the US, about ____
280 million hens produce more than ____
250 eggs per year.
* A hen can lay about ____
1400 BC.
* The chicken is one of the first domestic animals, appearing in China around ______
* The are some 150
____ chicken species and hundreds of chicken breeds.
* A chicken takes about ____
24 hours to lay one egg.
* Meringue topped pies should be baked at _____
350 degrees for ___
5 minutes.
7 to ___
10 days.
* Hard cooked eggs can safely be kept in the fridge ___
2 hours lose moisture and quality as well as
* Eggs that are kept at room temperature more than ____
being susceptible to bacterial growth.
* Over _____________
500,000,000 eggs have been recalled due to potential contamination by Salmonella.
* A person infected with Salmonella enteritidis bacterium usually has abdominal cramps, & diarrhea
beginning 12
___ to 72
___ hours after consuming a contaminated food or beverage.
4 to ___
7 days, and most people recover without antibiotics.
* The illness usually lasts ___
10,000 eggs are internally contaminated with
* In the Northeast U.S., approximately one in _________
Salmonella.
7 and11
* Most eggs are laid between ___
___ a.m.
3
1400
250
160
2807
11
150
65
70
11
79
17,000
24
1
5000,000,000
10,000
350
15
4
7
12
72
7
10
2
UNIT 6
A way to describe the shell of the egg, which allows air
to travel in/out of egg
» Porous
» Vitelline membrane
» Air sac
The membrane surrounding the yolk.
The air sac is located at the blunt end of the egg. It is formed when the
inner and outer membranes separate shortly after the egg is laid.
» Outer shell
» Chalaza
» Yolk
Is a porous covering which allows for exchange of moisture &
gasses.
Structure inside the egg that keeps the yolk in place.
The yellow center of an egg; high in cholesterol (sat. fat)
» Albumin
Commonly called ‘the white’; fat free part of the egg
» Germ cell
Located within the yolk; gives rise to the gametes (sex cells)
» Candling
» Grades
A procedure used to check interior quality of egg
UNIT 6
Fluffy baked preparation made with a starch-thickened
sauce into which stiffly beaten egg whites are folded in.
Custard Mixture of milk, egg, sugar, and a flavoring that is
cooked until thickened.
Emulsion Mixture that forms when oil and liquid are combined.
» Souffle
»
»
» Weeping
» Beading
Layer of moisture that sometimes forms between a meringue
and a filling.
Golden droplets of moisture that sometimes form on a
meringue.
» Meringue
Fluffy white mixture of beaten egg & sugar.
» Omelet
» Bloom
Can be soft or hard.
A beaten egg mixture that is cooked without stirring & served
folded in half
Coating on the egg shell that seals its pores…. Reduces moisture loss.
» Coagulum
Clumps of a protein food.
Using your vocab
notes, determine the
names of parts of the egg:
8.
9.
ACTIVATING
STRATEGY
chalaza
1.
Albumin is 100% PROTEIN!
2.
58% white
31% yolk
11% shell
3. germ cell
There are two light blue
areas in the white
(albumin) of the egg. The
darker of the two is the
thicker part of it.
7.
4.
6.
5. Vitelline membrane
A very old
egg will actually float
in the water and
should not be
eaten.
Structure of Eggs:
Egg Notes
– Eggcellent source of protein, therefore can be used in place of meat, poultry, fish
– One of the few good sources of vitamin D – egg yolk
– One of the highest sources of cholesterol (210 mg)
Nutrition:
–
–
–
–
–
–
Shell is porous.
That feature allows for exchange of moisture & gasses.
Color varies; depends on breed of chicken
Membrane between shell & white – inner membrane contracts as moisture is lost
Fresh egg has small air sac
Hi proportion of thick white indicates high quality
Changes during storage:
– Air cell increases in size (moisture evaporates through porous shell)
– Increased humidity reduces moisture loss
– Sore blunt end up to avoid movement of air sac
 Candling – A procedure to check interior quality of egg.
 Due to salmonella food poisoning, do not use eggs in raw
state.
 Sizes: determined by
weight per dozen
 Grades: AA, A, B, C
–
–
–
–
AA
A
B
C
thickest albumin
Jumbo
30 oz. per dozen
Extra large
27 oz. per dozen
Large
24 oz. per dozen
Medium
21 oz. per dozen
Small
18 oz. per dozen
Peewee
15 oz. per dozen
What is the ‘bloom’ on an egg?
BLOOM The coating or covering on the egg shell that seals its
pores. Bloom, also called cuticle, helps to prevent bacteria from
getting inside the shell and reduces moisture loss from the egg.
Eggs are washed before they are sent to market. This is
necessary for cleanliness, but it removes the bloom. To restore
the protection, packers give the eggs a light coating of edible
mineral oil.
AA
B
Functions of eggs
1)
2)
3)
4)
•
•
•
•
Add color to food
2 add flavor to food
Thicken
Bind food together
5)
6)
7)
8)
Leaven
Create foam
Add nutrients
Emulsify
Eggs coagulate in heat (become firm and thicken)
79 calories in one medium egg
Over cooking toughens the protein in eggs
When whipping egg whites, even one drop of egg yolk will reduce
the volume of the whites by 1/3rd! This is because yolks contain
fat. Be cautious when separating eggs that no yolk mixes with
whites.
• To hard cook eggs (never say “Hard boil”!)
• Place eggs in cold water
• Heat to just below boiling point
• Simmer 20 minutes
• Cool immediately to avoid green ring around yolk
Eggs –
Study
Guide
1.
Label the following parts
of the egg.
2. The _______
shell is a porous
covering which keeps the
air out of the egg.
3. Do not ______
wash eggs as this removes the coating (bloom).
4. T or F – The color of the egg shell does not effect the cooking performance or
nutritive value.
5. The white should be ______
thick and stand up well around the yolk.
yolk should be firm and well centered.
6. The _____
7. The air cell between the shell and the membrane grows Smaller/Larger with
age.
proteinas well as minerals, vitamins, and fat.
8. Eggs are very high in ______
9. Grading refers to the interior/exterior quality of eggs.
10. List the six sizes in which eggs may be purchased in order of largest to
smallest:
jumbo, extra large, large, medium, small, pee wee
Eggs – Study Guide (cont.)
11. A fresh/stale egg will sink to the bottom in a pan of cold water.
12. When held to the light, a fresh egg will appear cloudy/clear.
stale egg has a smooth, shiny shell
fresh egg has a dull, rough shell, and a _____
13. A _______
14. Eggs should be placed in the ___________
refrigerator as quickly as possible after purchase.
The following phrases may be found in various recipes. Explain how you would accomplish each:
15. Beat egg slightly –
Use fork to break yolk and combine it with white
16. Beat eggs until thick – To beat with rotary or electric mixer until eggs
thicken and become lighter in color
17. Beat egg whites until stiff –
Separate egg, beat with rotary or electric mixer until egg whites are
stiff, have a glossy appearance, and stand up in moist peaks
18. Two basic rules you must always keep in mind when cooking eggs are:
a. Low heat
b. Avoid over cooking
19. To ensure quality, the break-out test is often used in combination with candling.
eggs
broken and evaluated.
Sample _______
from each shipment are _______
Dull shell
Shell appearance?
Smaller Air Cell
Larger Air Cell
Air Cell?
Sinks in water
Difficult to peel a hard cookedSink
fresh egg
When held to light, interior
appears clear
Albumin is thicker
Shiny Shell
/
Floats in water (throw away)
Easy to peel a hard cooked stale
Float?
egg
Albumin?
Peeling?
When held to light, interior
appears cloudy
Albumin gets thinner
Less nutritional value
Nutrition?
1.
List three reasons why eggs are so amazing.
Healthy, nutritious, low cost, easy to find, fast & easy to
prepare, great meals & snacks, versatile, popular
2.
Amazing
Eggs!
List three steps eggs experience from the hen to your dinner table.
(VHS)
Laid, gathered mechanically, placed in containers, washed,
sprayed w/ mineral oil, sorted, graded, packaged, sold in stores
3.
Does egg size have any relationship to the quality of the egg? NO
4.
List the six egg sizes: Jumbo, Ex. Lg., Lg., Med, Sm., Pee wee
5.
List 3 nutrients in eggs: Vit. A, B-12, Riboflavin, Iron, Calcium, Thiamine,
Niacin, Phosphorus, Iodine, Pantathenic Acid, Vit. D
6.
List six functions of eggs.
Leaven, bond, thicken, coat/glaze, clarify, emulsify, garnish, color,
moisten, dry, flavor, add nutrient
7.
List six ways to prepare eggs.
Scrambled, fried, poached, hard cooked, soft cooked, baked, meringue,
mayonnaise, omelet, frittata, sauce, souffle, french toast, custard, eggnog,
custard ice cream, quiche
http://www.ehow.com/ho
w_7813921_stopmeringue-weeping.html
Egg whites that are beaten (meringue) reach
their best volume when the are beaten/whipped
at ROOM TEMPERATURE!

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