Failure of Appeasement Powerpoint

What were Hitler’s steps in Foreign
Policy, 1938 – 1939 and how did
Chamberlain and Britain respond?
By the end of this lesson you:
C – Can describe the events of the Sudeten Crisis, the Munich
Conference, the Czech Crisis and the Nazi Soviet Pact.
B – Can explain the events of the Sudeten Crisis, the Munich
Conference, the Czech Crisis and the Nazi Soviet Pact.
A – Can explain, link and prioritise the events of the Sudeten
Crisis, the Munich Conference, the Czech Crisis and the Nazi
Soviet Pact.
1. What was it?
2. Why did British governments
adopt the policy in the 1930s?
Title: Sudetenland Crisis
Title: Sudetenland Crisis
- Sudetenland contained 3 million Germans.
- Contained 75% of Czechoslovakia’s industry.
- Hitler wanted to control Cz to avoid a war on
two fronts if he fought a war on Germany’s
Western Front.
- Thought USSR might invade G through Cz.
- He wanted WEALTH and LEBENSRAUM.
Title: Sudetenland Crisis
- Hitler encouraged Cz Nazi Party leader, Henlein to stir
up trouble in Sudetenland.
- German newspapers published stories that Cz officials
had committed atrocities against Sudeten Germans.
- Hitler said he use military force if no solution found.
- Cz did not want to give up Sudetenland – because of
industry and defences. Thought they would get support
from French allies.
- Chamberlain intervened and attended 3 meetings in
September to try to achieve compromise
(Berchtesgaden, Godesberg, Munich)
Title: Sudetenland Crisis
- Chamberlain and Mussolini persuaded Hitler to put off
invasion of Sudetenland and attend an international
conference. GB, G, Fr and It were at conference – NOT
- Sudetenland was given to Germany – countries agreed
to GUARANTEE Cz’s new borders.
- Chamberlain and Hitler agreed the Anglo-German
declaration which was an agreement between
Germany and GB to settle differences through talks –
never to go to war again.
Title: Results of the Munich
• Cz - deserted by their allies, lost resources and
defences against G.
• GB – relief at avoiding war, Chamberlain heroic. Gave
GB time to re-arm.
• Fr – relief at avoiding war. Gave Fr time to re-arm.
• G – Hitler more confident than ever that GB and Fr
would not stop him if he invaded Poland.
• USSR – Stalin angry at not being invited to conference.
• It – Mussolini supported Hitler during crisis, the
countries became closer, resulting in 1939 Pact of
The End of Czechoslovakia
• Kristallnacht in November 1938 caused great
concern in GB.
• Hitler stated his ambition to take control of the
rest of Cz.
• Hitler put pressure on new Cz leader, Hacha, and
threatened invasion. Hacha ‘invited’ in German
troops to restore order (although there was no
• Germany took control of Cz without breaking
international law.
Danzig and the Polish Corridor
• March 1939 – Hitler took Memel from Lithuania.
GB was concerned G would try to take more land
it lost at Versailles, including the ‘Polish Corridor’
and the city of Danzig.
• GB ‘guaranteed’ Poland’s borders on 30th March
• April – Italy occupied Albania. GB and Fr
guaranteed the borders of Greece and Romania.
• May – Germany and Italy signed the Pact of Steel,
Hitler was now more confident of taking ALL of
Danzig and the Polish Corridor
• Hitler thought GB and Fr would not fight
Germany over Poland unless they could rely
on support of the Soviet Union.
• Stalin of the Soviet Union wanted to make a
pact with Britain, but Chamberlain were slow
to respond.
• Instead the Soviet Union (Molotov - foreign
minister) made a pact with Germany
(Ribbentrop – foreign minister).
Nazi-Soviet Pact
• Agreed not to support any third country if
attacked by it.
• Promised not to join an alliance aimed at the
• Secretly agreed to invade and divide Poland.
• Allowed Soviet Union to invade and take over
Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
Outbreak of War
• On 1 September 1939 German troops invaded
Poland. Hitler was now very confident – he
knew the Soviet Union would not support
Britain and France.
• Britain and France issued an ultimatum
demanding the withdrawal of German troops
from Poland. Germany ignored this and Britain
and France declared war on 3 September.

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