Sutida Ngonkum, Ph.D. Khon Kaen University, Thailand E-mail: [email protected] Mediation (Vygotsky, 1978; Leont'ev, 1977; Engeström, 1987) Cognitive development is culturally situated and mediated by tools and social contact with others (Vygotsky, 1978) Attempts to locate the analysis of mediation of activity (Leont'ev, 1977). Activity theory’s units of analysis is activity rather than the individual (, 1977). ‘While Vygotsky’s SCT claims that an individual mind is mediated by cultural tools (semiotics), Leont'ev focuses the mediation of mind through human activity ( Lantolf & Thorne, 2006, p. 214) It could demonstrate human in both action level elaborating individual acting upon the task. It could demonstrate collective activity system which is affected by the interrelation of the three elements: rules, community, and division of labour. The basic triangular representation of mediation (Vygotsky, 1978) Artefact Subject Object Depicts a view of a human agent acting within an activity Depicts activity a holistic view of human collective Emphasises individual (subject) using tools in completing the task (object) ( Daniels, 2001). Artefact Subject Object Emphasises human working in a collective system and being influenced by particularly the three elements in an activity: Community, Rules and Division of labour. Community = people who share the same goal Rules= implicit and explicit norms and convention that place certain limits as well as possibilities on the nature of interaction within the actively system Division of Labour =position distribution for members in the community investigates the implementation of innovative teaching intervention in a Thai tertiary listening comprehension class To explore individual student regulation of listening tasks To examine influences of group interaction on learning in this context RQ2. In what way did the students use listening strategies to regulate their listening tasks? RQ3. In what ways did the group function during the listening tasks? Preparation period -pre-test Teaching and training period - video recordings of classroom activities - teacher-researcher’s field notes Concluding period - post-test -group interview Pre-listening group work allowing social interaction While-listening individual work providing space for self-awareness development Post-listening group work allowing social interaction Planning Monitoring Problem-solving Evaluating Teacherresearcher’s field notes Group interview Video recording of classroom activities Triangulation The High Improvement Group The Moderate Improvement Group The Marginal Improvement Group 1) Students’ ability to take control over the listening task 2) Students’ mastery in using the mediation tools (strategies) 2.1 their ability to match the appropriate combination of strategies 2.2 their ability to operationalise strategies 2.3 their' ability to actively and systematically repair their listening problem Individual students in High Improvement Group exhibited: 1) high ability to take control over their listening compared to peers in the Moderate and Marginal Improvement Groups. 2) high ability to match the appropriate combination of strategies, to operationalise strategies, and to actively and systematically repair their listening problems Overall students in the Moderate Improvement Group: 1) Could sometimes take control over their listening task. 2) Generally demonstrated a better ability to match and combine strategies, appropriately operationalise the strategies, repair their listening problem than their peers in the Marginal Improvement Group, but could be seen as less effective listeners when compared to students in the High Improvement Group. Overall students in the Marginal Improvement Group: 1. exhibited less ability to take control over the listening task 2. exhibited less ability to match the appropriate combination of strategies, operationalise strategies, repair their listening problem. 1) Task adherence 2) Learning effort 3) Collaboration 4) Appreciation of benefits of group work Task adherence All group members strictly followed the prescribed learning task with only one member making a minimal alteration Learning efforts Learning effort was evidence by all members Collaboration Individual students brought their knowledge to share with peers Appreciation of benefits of group work All members strongly exhibited their appreciation of how group work enhanced their listening comprehension skills improvement Task adherence Group members all made one minor alteration to the prescribed learning task Learning efforts Learning effort was evidence by all members Collaboration Individual students brought their knowledge to share with peers Appreciation of benefits of group work All members strongly exhibited their appreciation of how group work enhanced their listening comprehension skills improvement Task adherence Group members all made a number of major alteration to the prescribed learning task Learning efforts Learning effort was minimal by group members Collaboration Individual students learned from a knowledge provider Appreciation of benefits of group work Group members exhibited minimal appreciation of how group work enhanced their listening comprehension skills improvement In carrying out their task, the subjects (students) differed in terms of their ability to use listening strategies as a mediation tool to help them regulate their action toward the goal (listening task). Such a difference in this ability was due to two factors: the inherent attributes of individual learners and the training. Listening strategies Subject Object ‘The more proficient the subjects (students) were, according to student reports about the English language problems they encountered when they practice listening, the more able they were to use the mediation tool to enhance their action upon the task. This phenomenon is compatible Wertch (1998)’s notion of inherent attributes of individual learners.’ ‘Both more and less proficient learners could become more proficient after they had been trained to master the tools. Once they mastered the use of the tools, they could then make use of them in their action, which in turn led to their successful goal completion. This is confirmed by Vygostsky (1978)s SCT concept’ Community Members valued hard-work and individual contribution. Generally, they believed that they are confident language learners who are capable of regulating the listening task. Rules Members demonstrated obedient learning behaviour as most of them strictly followed the task rules. Division of labour Members seemed to realise that they should bring new knowledge into the group so other members could learn Community Members valued hard work. However, members believed that by themselves they were not able to regulate their listening task. Thus, the community as a whole strongly stated that contributions from every group member are precious. Rules Members altered the rules of community (the task’s rules). Division of labour Members perceived themselves as buddies who rely on one another, and they together foster the group’s work into a successful whole. Community Members did not event value learning for its own sake, but focused on only the lowest level of task completion. Thus, the majority of the members in this group were dependent learners in that they depended on one student as a source of knowledge. Rules Overall members made major alteration to the task rules, and not all students showed discipline in approaching their listening task. Division of labour Every member believed that one member was the source of knowledge. 1) the practice in each of group (activity system) differed due to the influence of the interaction of the elements of community, rules, and division of labour. 2) the community of each system possessed its own values and beliefs, which influenced the way the group or the system tailored the rules and distributed the division of labour. ‘It can be argued that the community values and beliefs exhibit significant influences on how the community designed its rules as well as defined the division of labour, as John (2009) proposed.’ 3)‘ It could be particularly noticed that the members of the three groups altered the rules of prescribed task. Such alteration negatively affected the degree of shared object completion. Of the three group, The Marginal Improvement Group was significantly affected by the members’ task altering hampering the successful task completion, which in turn limited the members’ development in learning. 1) Language learners are active learning agents actively engaging in constructing their own learning (Lantolf, 2001) 2) Learning occurs when learning agents construct their learning with the help of artefacts and within an activity system (Engeström, 1987) 3) Learning does not occur separately from the social context but is dependent on social and individual processes in the construction of knowledge (Vygotsky, 1978) 4) Therefore, the pedagogical intervention, which combined group work with the CALLA instructional model involving students using listening strategies through meta-cognitive process in the pre, while, and post-listening steps of a learning task, positively affected student improvement in listening comprehension (Ngonkum, 2010). Engeström, Y. (1987). 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