Green, neoliberal and dialogical planning ideas in compact city development: How are values and ideological conflicts reflected in types of planning documents? Tore Sager, NTNU 1 Purpose and Research Question Purpose: To study the ideological direction in which plans for a more compact city are moving society. 2 RQ: Which indications of neoliberalism, sustainability and deliberative democracy are found in the planning of compact city development? Procedural Values in CPT Empathy, broad-mindedness, being a good listener, aiming to understand others’ point of view. Empowerment, striving for autonomy and independence in the performance of daily tasks. Equality of moral worth, equal opportunities for communicative action across race, sex, and religion; that is, respect for diversity. Fairness, serving people according to criteria of need and communicative difficulties rather than power, money, and social status. Honesty, sincerity and trustworthiness, abstaining from deception and manipulation. Inclusiveness, hospitality in the sense of welcoming people with differing sets of values and attitudes into planning processes and other arenas of social and political life. Responsiveness to other parties in the planning process and to the general public, willingness to engage in deliberation and debate, and to give reasons why one holds a view. Self-government, defending every citizen’s right to influence collective decisions in matters that concern them. 3 Substantive Value Principles in CPT: 1 The plan should accommodate diverse lifestyles and not hinder legitimate groups from living in accordance with their self-chosen identity. For example, cultural minorities should find places in the city which are fit for their rituals and ways of socializing. (Empathy) The plan should observe the principles of universal design, as this results in accessibility – for example, to basic public and private services – and thus independence and autonomy for a larger share of the population (Empowerment) The plan should respect what is culturally essential to affected groups, such as their identity-shaping heritage and their conception of that which is sacred. (Equality of moral worth) The plan should hold something for each affected group, if not in the main physical manifestation of its purpose, then in the form of compensation. Especially, the situation of underprivileged groups should not be aggravated. (Fairness) 4 Substantive Value Principles in CPT: 2 The plan should correspond to the information and the planner intentions conveyed to the participating parties throughout the planning process. The plan should not give reason to suspect previously hidden agendas. (Honesty) The plan should promote wide participation in public life and the labour market. The plan should make it easy for people to meet and interact in parks, playgrounds and other places for rest, recreation and voluntary activities (Inclusiveness) The plan, even when designed contrary to the wishes of a particular group, should include elements signalling to this group that it has been listened to. At least some details of the plan should be fashioned to accommodate the needs of protesting groups. (Responsiveness) Widely accepted solutions negotiated in the communication process (especially consensus proposals) should be incorporated in the final plan, possibly with modifications catering for the interests of people who may not be part of a local consensus; for example, tax payers in general and future generations. (Selfgovernment) 5 Values embedded in Neoliberalism Individualism promoting self-reliance, independence, and 6 responsibility for one’s own well-being. Entrepreneurialism, meaning management of one’s own life through risk and initiative in competitive markets. Accountability as support for the rule of law and accepted standards of conduct, for example, budget discipline. Prosperity through minimization of waste, that is, efficient use of labour, capital, and natural resources. Reward for individual effort through impersonal market mechanisms rather than bureaucratic regulations. Freedom of choice resulting from competitiveness and from institutions, impartial authority, and social recognition allowing market entry and choice. Neoliberal Urban Policies: 1 Urban economic development City marketing Urban development by attracting the ‘creative class’ Economic development incentives Competitive bidding Infrastructure provision Public-private partnerships Private sector involvement in financing and operating transport infrastructure Private sector involvement in procuring water 7 Neoliberal Urban Policies: 2 Management of commercial areas Business-friendly zones and flexible zoning Property-led urban regeneration Privatization of public space and sales-boosting exclusion Housing and neighbourhood renewal Liberalization of housing markets Gentrification Privately governed and secured neighbourhoods Quangos organizing market-oriented urban development 8 Green Values Ecological wisdom, recognizing that humans are part of nature and not 9 separate from it, and acknowledging the need for ecological balance. Inter-generational fairness aiming to utilize resources in such a way that future generations will benefit rather than suffer, and safely dispose of or “unmake” the waste created by our generation. Intra-generational fairness that recognizes the ignored, protects the vulnerable, serves those who suffer, and enables them to develop their capacities and to pursue their aspirations. Personal and global responsibility, aiming to improve personal well-being, while at the same time pursuing the common good and joining with others to foster peace, economic justice, and the health of the planet. Stewardship, as the responsible use and management of resources and nature through conservation and other practices that address the social challenges of humanity within the carrying capacity of natural systems. Green Urban Policies: 1 Urban intensification and high density, mixed-use 10 development to avoid sprawl and superfluous driving. The central city and sub-centres emphasize access and circulation by green modes of transport, and absorb a high proportion of employment and residential growth. Infrastructure and facilities for environmentally friendly vehicles, cyclists, and pedestrians. Toll schemes and regulation of street use and parking that discourage private cars and favour public transport. Restrictions on energy use and car parking in new housing projects. Green Urban Policies: 2 Energy-efficient heating (district heating). Green lungs, parks, and planting. Preservation of farmland, recreation areas, natural beauty, and critical environmental areas. Hazard mitigation and noise protection. Clean-up or removal of polluted soil before building on a site. Waste collection systems designed for pre-separation at source, recycling and recovery. 11 Document Types Municipal plan: Land-use part (Planning programme) Municipal plan: Social part Municipal sector plan (area or theme) Area development plan Detailed development plan Additional documents? 12 Cases Trondheim: Nedre Elvehavn Additional cases? Trh: Lade-Leangen Trh: Sluppen-Tempe Sustainability, examples 13 Municipal plan Development plan Densification, build the Internal network for city inwards Developments to support the transit arc Implement the environmental package for transport cyclists and pedestrians, and connections to external network Parking space for a limited number of cars Noise-deflection wall required Green patches and planting Inclusion and Participation, examples Municipal plan Development plan Aiming for an including At least 50% of the flats and diverse city The entire urban society should be accessible to all Developing the urban neighbourhoods in cooperation with the local residents 14 should have universal design A mix of different kinds of residents is aimed for Parking for handicapped people is required Preserve identity-forming buildings and memorials of the past Neoliberalism, examples Municipal plan Organized innovation based on public institutions, such as university and hospital (public-private co-operation) Trh as an internationally recognized city of technology and learning (city marketing) Norway’s most attractive city for students and researchers (attracting the creative class) 15 Development plan Very few indications of neoliberalism. How to interpret this? What do I need to do besides studying the plans?