Green, neoliberal and dialogical planning ideas in compact city

Green, neoliberal and dialogical planning ideas
in compact city development:
How are values and ideological conflicts reflected in
types of planning documents?
Tore Sager, NTNU
Purpose and Research Question
 Purpose:
To study the ideological
direction in which plans for
a more compact city are
moving society.
 RQ:
Which indications of
sustainability and
deliberative democracy are
found in the planning of
compact city development?
Procedural Values in CPT
 Empathy, broad-mindedness, being a good listener, aiming to understand others’ point of
 Empowerment, striving for autonomy and independence in the performance of daily tasks.
 Equality of moral worth, equal opportunities for communicative action across race, sex,
and religion; that is, respect for diversity.
 Fairness, serving people according to criteria of need and communicative difficulties
rather than power, money, and social status.
 Honesty, sincerity and trustworthiness, abstaining from deception and manipulation.
 Inclusiveness, hospitality in the sense of welcoming people with differing sets of values and
attitudes into planning processes and other arenas of social and political life.
 Responsiveness to other parties in the planning process and to the general public,
willingness to engage in deliberation and debate, and to give reasons why one holds a
 Self-government, defending every citizen’s right to influence collective decisions in matters
that concern them.
Substantive Value Principles in CPT: 1
 The plan should accommodate diverse lifestyles and not hinder
legitimate groups from living in accordance with their self-chosen
identity. For example, cultural minorities should find places in the city
which are fit for their rituals and ways of socializing. (Empathy)
 The plan should observe the principles of universal design, as this results
in accessibility – for example, to basic public and private services – and
thus independence and autonomy for a larger share of the population
 The plan should respect what is culturally essential to affected groups,
such as their identity-shaping heritage and their conception of that
which is sacred. (Equality of moral worth)
 The plan should hold something for each affected group, if not in the
main physical manifestation of its purpose, then in the form of
compensation. Especially, the situation of underprivileged groups should
not be aggravated. (Fairness)
Substantive Value Principles in CPT: 2
 The plan should correspond to the information and the planner intentions
conveyed to the participating parties throughout the planning process. The plan
should not give reason to suspect previously hidden agendas. (Honesty)
 The plan should promote wide participation in public life and the labour
market. The plan should make it easy for people to meet and interact in parks,
playgrounds and other places for rest, recreation and voluntary activities
 The plan, even when designed contrary to the wishes of a particular group,
should include elements signalling to this group that it has been listened to. At
least some details of the plan should be fashioned to accommodate the needs of
protesting groups. (Responsiveness)
 Widely accepted solutions negotiated in the communication process (especially
consensus proposals) should be incorporated in the final plan, possibly with
modifications catering for the interests of people who may not be part of a local
consensus; for example, tax payers in general and future generations. (Selfgovernment)
Values embedded in Neoliberalism
 Individualism promoting self-reliance, independence, and
responsibility for one’s own well-being.
Entrepreneurialism, meaning management of one’s own life through
risk and initiative in competitive markets.
Accountability as support for the rule of law and accepted standards
of conduct, for example, budget discipline.
Prosperity through minimization of waste, that is, efficient use of
labour, capital, and natural resources.
Reward for individual effort through impersonal market mechanisms
rather than bureaucratic regulations.
Freedom of choice resulting from competitiveness and from
institutions, impartial authority, and social recognition allowing
market entry and choice.
Neoliberal Urban Policies: 1
Urban economic development
 City marketing
 Urban development by attracting the ‘creative class’
 Economic development incentives
 Competitive bidding
Infrastructure provision
 Public-private partnerships
 Private sector involvement in financing and operating transport
 Private sector involvement in procuring water
Neoliberal Urban Policies: 2
Management of commercial areas
 Business-friendly zones and flexible zoning
 Property-led urban regeneration
 Privatization of public space and sales-boosting exclusion
Housing and neighbourhood renewal
 Liberalization of housing markets
 Gentrification
 Privately governed and secured neighbourhoods
 Quangos organizing market-oriented urban development
Green Values
 Ecological wisdom, recognizing that humans are part of nature and not
separate from it, and acknowledging the need for ecological balance.
Inter-generational fairness aiming to utilize resources in such a way that
future generations will benefit rather than suffer, and safely dispose of or
“unmake” the waste created by our generation.
Intra-generational fairness that recognizes the ignored, protects the
vulnerable, serves those who suffer, and enables them to develop their
capacities and to pursue their aspirations.
Personal and global responsibility, aiming to improve personal well-being,
while at the same time pursuing the common good and joining with
others to foster peace, economic justice, and the health of the planet.
Stewardship, as the responsible use and management of resources and
nature through conservation and other practices that address the social
challenges of humanity within the carrying capacity of natural systems.
Green Urban Policies: 1
 Urban intensification and high density, mixed-use
development to avoid sprawl and superfluous driving.
The central city and sub-centres emphasize access and
circulation by green modes of transport, and absorb a high
proportion of employment and residential growth.
Infrastructure and facilities for environmentally friendly
vehicles, cyclists, and pedestrians.
Toll schemes and regulation of street use and parking that
discourage private cars and favour public transport.
Restrictions on energy use and car parking in new housing
Green Urban Policies: 2
 Energy-efficient heating (district heating).
 Green lungs, parks, and planting.
 Preservation of farmland, recreation areas, natural beauty,
and critical environmental areas.
 Hazard mitigation and noise protection.
 Clean-up or removal of polluted soil before building on a
 Waste collection systems designed for pre-separation at
source, recycling and recovery.
Document Types
 Municipal plan:
Land-use part
(Planning programme)
Municipal plan:
Social part
Municipal sector plan
(area or theme)
Area development plan
Detailed development plan
 Additional documents?
 Trondheim:
Nedre Elvehavn
 Additional cases?
Trh: Lade-Leangen
Trh: Sluppen-Tempe
Sustainability, examples
Municipal plan
Development plan
 Densification, build the
 Internal network for
city inwards
 Developments to support
the transit arc
 Implement the
environmental package for
cyclists and pedestrians,
and connections to
external network
 Parking space for a limited
number of cars
 Noise-deflection wall
 Green patches and planting
Inclusion and Participation, examples
Municipal plan
Development plan
 Aiming for an including
 At least 50% of the flats
and diverse city
 The entire urban society
should be accessible to all
 Developing the urban
neighbourhoods in cooperation with the local
should have universal
 A mix of different kinds of
residents is aimed for
 Parking for handicapped
people is required
 Preserve identity-forming
buildings and memorials of
the past
Neoliberalism, examples
Municipal plan
 Organized innovation based
on public institutions, such as
university and hospital
(public-private co-operation)
 Trh as an internationally
recognized city of technology
and learning (city marketing)
 Norway’s most attractive city
for students and researchers
(attracting the creative class)
Development plan
Very few indications of
How to interpret this?
What do I need to do besides
studying the plans?

similar documents