pptx - Leiden Observatory

Report
Radio source surveys and populations
Ken Kellermann
National Radio Astronomy Observatory
Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array
Expanded Very Large Array
Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope
Very Long Baseline Array
Radio Survey Discoveries
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June 13, 2013
Radio galaxies (1949)
Cosmic evolution (1955)
Quasars (1963)
IPS (1964)
Pulsars (1967)
Gravitational lenses (1979)
Georgefest
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Radio source surveys and populations
• Radio source surveys
– History
– Curent status
– Problems
• VLA and JVLA Deep Surveys
– CDFS & ECDFS
– Lockman Hole (SWIRES)
• Populations
– Strong source population
– MicroJy population
– NanoJy population?
• RQ Quasars
June 13, 2013
Georgefest
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Radio Source Surveys
13,000 hr
3000 hr
2400 hr
2000 hr
1700 hr
1000 hr
Norris et al., 2013
Georgefest
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Radio galaxies
“Positions of Three Discrete Sources of
Galactic Radio-Frequency Radiation” –
Bolton, Stanley, and Slee, 1949
Crab
M87
NGC 5128
1954 Cygnus A, z = 0.05
Baade & Minkowski, 1954
June 13, 2013
Georgefest
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Radio Source Counts
  =  
 = −1.5
Sydney
Mills Cross
Bernie Mills
X = -1.85
X=-3
Cambridge
2C and 3C
Martin Ryle
Georgefest
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Radio Source Surveys
VLA, WSRT, ATCA, GMRT Molonglo
100 MHz – 22 GHz
e-MERLIN, LOFAR, ASKAP, MeerKAT, SKA
All Sky surveys
Cosmology-Large Scale Structure
FR I & FR II Radio Galaxies, RL Quasars
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Limited Area Surveys
Populations – Galaxy Evolution
AGN, SFG, RQ Quasars
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NVSS
FIRST
WENSS
SUMSS
AT20
Georgefest
E-CDFS
HDFN
HDFS
COSMOS
SWIRES - Lockman Hole
Phoenix
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Owen & Morrison, 2008
Condon (1984) compilation
FR I & FR II Radio Galaxies – Quasars
Kellermann et al., 2008
June 13, 2013
Georgefest
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JVLA Observations of the OwenMorrison field (SWIRE) Lockman Hole)
• α = 10h46m00s,
δ = +59°01′00″
• ν = 3  (2 GHz BW)
• C configuration (3-km)
• θ = 8 arcsec
• τ = 50 hrs
• σn = 1.0 μJy
• σc = 1.2 μJy
Georgefest
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MicroJy Radio Source Counts
O&M 2008
Condon 1989
Condon 2012
Problems
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μJy count discrepancy
natural confusion at 100 nJy
Non thermal sky temperature
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Sample Variance – NO
Noise bias
Statistical weight corrections
primary beam
Bandwidth smearing
Time smearing corrections
Multiple component sources
• Resolution corrections
Log Jy
Georgefest
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ARCADE 2 – Excess Sky Brightness
(3) = 54 ± 6 
3, 8, 10, 30, 90 GHz
(Fixen et al. 2011)
Georgefest
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Sky background implications
survey
limits
ARCADE 2
Condon, 1989; Wilman 2008
Condon et al., 2012
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 > 6  104  2
VLA Survey of the CDFS
• Chandra 4 Msec Survey (Xue et al. 2011)
– 740 X-ray sources
–  > 10−17 ergs/sec
• VLA Survey (Miller et al., ApJS 205, 2013)
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20 cm; 240 hrs; 6 pointings; Ω = 0.3 deg
VLA C configuration (1.6 x 2.8 arcmin resolution)
σ = 6.4 μJy
883 radio sources S > 37 μJy
• 268 detected at X-rays (Vattakunnel et al, 2010)
• 839 (95%) OIR counterparts
– 678 (82%) redshifts - 274 spectroscopic (Bonzini et al. 2012)
– Spitzer IRAC SIMPLE 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8 μm (91%) (Damen et al. 2010)
– Spitzer MIPS FIDEL 24 μm (88%) (Dickenson et al. 2007)
• Population Classification (Bonzini et al. submitted)
June 13, 2013
Georgefest
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Chandra Deep
Field South
7.5 μJy
VLA
6.5 μJy
4 Msec exposure
740 X-ray sources
S >10-17 ergs/sec
ESO 2.2m/WFI z < 27.3
Spectra - VLT
GOODS-S
HST B, V, I, z < 28
IRAC 3.6, 4.5, 5.8. 8.0 μm
MIPS FIDEL 24 μm
MUSYC K (VLT) < 22.4
Georgefest
Hubble UDF
976 ks exposure
B, V, I, z
10,000 galaxies
mag 29
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S > 1 mJy
• FR I &S >FR II RG
• RL Qusars
RL AGN
• R > 1.4
• Lx > 1042 ergs/sec
• NIR (IRAC) colors
• FIR: q < 1.7
June 13, 2013
RQ AGN
• R ≤ 1.4
• Lx > 1042 ergs/sec
• NIR (IRAC) colors
• FIR: q ~ 1.7
Georgefest
Star forming galaxies
Radio-FIR: q ~ 1.7
R = log(Sr/SV) < 1.7
Lr< 1024 W/Hz
Not E galaxy
Lx < 1042 ergs/sec
No VLBI component
μJy radio sources
• SFG
• AGN
• RL AGN
• RQ AGN (SF)
Padovani et al. in preparation
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Quasi-stellar Galaxies
June 13, 2013
Georgefest
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Radio Loud and Radio Quiet QSOs
Two populations?
Separate Population
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Continuous Distribution
Kellermann et al., 1989, 1994
Miller, et al, 1990, 1993
Sopp & Alexander, 1991
Visnovsky et al., 1992
Peterson, 1997
Kukula et al., 1998
Krolik, 1999
Kembhavi & Narlikar, 1999
Ivezic, et al., 2002, 2004
Laor, 2004
Jiang et al. 2007
White et al., 2007
Zamfir et al., 2008
Balokovic et al., 2012
Kimball et al., 2011
Condon et al., 2013
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Georgefest
White et al. 2000
Lacy et al., , 2001
Cirasuolo, et al. 2003
Barvainis, et al., 2005
Rafter et al., 2009
Mahony et al. 2012
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JVLA Observations of SDSS QSOs
Kimball et al. 2012, ApJ ,739, L29
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179 SDSS QSOs
5 < ν < 7 
14 <  < 19
0.2 <  < 0.3; Mi < - 23
τ~ 30 
σ ~ 6 μ
RQ QSOs  ≤ 1023.5 W/Hz
RQ QSOs due to SF in host
galaxy
Georgefest
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Summary
• All Sky surveys sample powerful radio galaxies and quasars
– S > 1 mJy
– First indication of cosmic evolution.
• microJy radio sources are driven by a mixture of SF and SMBHs
• RQ QSOs differ from RL QSOs and are powered primarily by star
formation in the host galaxy.
• ARCADE 2 observations suggest a population of nanoJy sources not
associated with galaxies
• Number Counts rapidly converge at low flux desnities
– SKA will not be limited by natural confusion
• The JVLA is by far the most sensitive radio telescope available
– Will learn more about submicroJy population
June 13, 2013
Georgefest
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