Here

Report
Overview of European Data from
Official Statistics
Roxane Silberman
CNRS/Réseau Quetelet and DwB coordinator
With the support of Cyril Jayet, Marie Cros, Raphaëlle Fleureux, Alexandre Kych (CNRS-RQ)
DwB training course: Working with data from Official Statistics particularly the Longitudinal SILC
Paris, GENES, 3rd DwB Training Course, February 19-21, 2014
Aim of this presentation
•
Main course is on SILC longitudinal, European microdata ie provided by Eurostat
•
Eurostat microdata completely based on national microdata
Increasing links between the national and the European level, however differences remain
 Using the European microdata requires understanding these links as it raises important methodological issues
 National microdata still offer rich resources for comparative research
•
3 objectives
•
Provide an understanding of the construction of the European microdata
•
Take this occasion for providing a comprehensive overview of what is available for comparative research both at
European and at national level regarding official microdata, that are still underused
• More than Eurostat microdata at European level
• Related microdata available at national level more detailed, other variables, and sometimes on a longer
period (ex. SILC)
• Other microdata availabla at national levels (ex. SILC related topics)
•
How to locate and access these microdata and new tools DwB will offer
•
An overview
•
Focus on transnational access to confidential microdata (M. Isnard presentation)
Outline
•
•
National and European official microdata: terminology and historical
backgrounds
Overview of official microdata in Europe


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•
Integrated European microdata (Eurostat)
Other European microdata
National microdata collected and harmonized in European databases
Other national microdata (with some focus on related topics to SILC)
How to locate and access official microdata within Europe?
 Metadata
 Transnational access
 DwB support and new tools
I.
National and European official microdata
Terminology and historical backgrounds
-
-
Official microdata ? A vast perimeter, moving and
covering different types of microdata
Historical backgrounds for European microdata
Differences in national systems for official microdata
Consequences for research
Official microdata ?
A vast perimeter …
•
Different words (official, government, national etc..)
 In any cases, statistics provided by government bodies
 A larger perimeter than NSIs and Eurostat
•
Microdata provided by :
 National level
 National Statistical Institute
 National Statistical administrations coordinated by the NSI + tax data
 Central banks
 Government agencies particularly those in charge of Social security, health, pensions …
 Local authorities increasingly
Number of government bodies producing and providing data vary according to the organization
of the each statistical system and degree of centralization
 European level
 Eurostat
 European Central Bank
 European Commission and agencies
… moving
•
Perimeter may change according to the decision of governments/NSIs
 ex. France:
 Customs statistical department went out and in
 Tax data recently included as a Statistical department coordinated by INSEE
 Cereq microdata on transition from school to work went out …
 Ex. Household finance and consumption surveys (HFCS) move to central banks coordinated by the
BCE
•
Mixed status for some government agencies (social security, unemployment …)
•
•
What about data to be certified by NSIs ?
•
Under different legal framework (surveys, administrative data, business data, fiscal data, health
data, financial data …) with consequences for access
Perimeter does not necessarily cover similar data in the different countries depending on role of other
producers (universities …) and historical changes (Eastern countries recently joining the EU)
… and covering different types of microdata
 Censuses or registers + longitudinal samples from censuses
 Surveys (including some panels)
 Individual and households surveys
 Business surveys
 Administrative data (frequently longitudinal databases)
 Individual
 Business
 Combined datasets
 Administrative datasets
– More common in countries based on registers
– Now increasingly the case in all countries (yet requiring a common identifier)
 Administrative data and surveys more and more common for longitudinal data
Raising many issues in terms of metadata and access
Historical background for European microdata
•
Increasing harmonization process at international level since WW2 led by international organisations (UN,
OECD…) mostly by encouragement and persuasion
•
European Union framework specific as there is a political and legal framework
 European Statistical System development started with the CECA during the 50ies
 Progressively developed during 30 years within a somewhat unclear framework (Commission also relying
on other sources)
 New start and developments since the 90ies towards more autonomy and integration
 A legal framework establishing the ESS in 2009 (Regulation N° 223/2009,
 Rather recently
 As a partnership between the Commission statistical authority (Eurostat), the NSIs and other
national statistical authorities, with cooperation with the ECB
 In compliance with the principle of subsidiarity
•
•
•
•
Main focus on indicators, less on microdata for research analysis
Subsidiarity principle at the core of the ESS
Harmonization and integration process growing: 80% of the national data linked to the European requests
Yet persistent difficulties
… relying on national official statistical systems built in different
ways
•
National statistical systems pre-existed to the ESS
•
Built in quite different ways through history from diverse sources and bodies, piece by piece,
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•
Important differences

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•
Toward an increasing coordination role of the NSI
Yet keeping traces from the construction even in centralized statistical system where some bodies still remain apart
Central banks in general apart
Surveys and registers countries
Centralized vs decentralized/coordinated
Political systems

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•
Regional autonomy (Spain, UK and Scotland)
Federal system (Germany and the landers)
France and overseas departments
National and local authorities gaining importance
Recent political changes (Eastern countries)
Resulting in differences also in type, number and variety of datasets
Consequences for working with data
•
Eurostat microdata are increasingly rich and underused resources for comparative research
However still raising a number of methodological issues
•
Other resources important both at European and national level for comparative research
Some other European sources integrated or post-harmonized
Related national parts may also offer in some countries more variety, a wider historical perspective,
more questions and more detailed microdata
o However the harmonization process may impact the series and determine breaks in the series at
national level
Other national datasets available for comparative research, however not harmonized
•
Researchers face difficulties and “silos” for information and access both at national and at European
level
Dissemination under European bodies yet access to the national parts under decision of countries
 Not all integrated microdata include all countries
 Access still burdensome even within the new regulation (more in M. Isnard presentation)
At national level
 Information and access more or less fragmented depending on the degree of centralisation
for production and dissemination (NSIs, Data archives)
 Transnational access depending on the legal status framework
II. European and national microdata
Three subsets from a European perspective
European integrated microdata
National microdata harmonized at European level
Other national microdata for comparative research
European integrated microdata
Produced and provided at national level and integrated and provided at European
level by European government bodies
To remind : national part may differ at national level and at European level
A part are pre-existing surveys integrating harmonization requirements
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
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Eurostat
European Central Bank
European Commission and other European government bodies
Others under EU regulations or recommendations of Eurostat
European Integrated microdata
Eurostat microdata
A growing number of datasets
 European Union Labour Force Survey (LFS)
 European Community Household Panel (ECHP)
 Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (SILC)
 Adult Education Survey (AES)
 Community Innovation Survey (CIS)
 Structure of Earnings Survey (SES)
 European Road Freight Transport Survey (ERFT)
 European Health Interview Survey (EHIS)
 Continuous Vocational Training Survey (CVTS)
 Community Statistics on Information Society (CSIS)
However …
•
•
•
Date of inclusion for countries differ
 National microdata may offer a wider historical perspective in some cases
 See LFS : France since 1962, Spain since 1964, Norway since 1972, Portugal
since 1992, Estonia since 1995
Implementation in national instruments differ : different surveys, variables from
administrative data
 Good metadata important (ex. questionnaires)
More questions and more detailed microdata at national level in several cases
 The SILC example in Estonia, France, and some other countries
SILC and the Estonian Social Survey
•
•
•
“ESS is the Estonian branch of a pan-European survey of income and living
conditions called the EU-SILC (…). Statistics Estonia, however, has added questions,
which are of interest to the domestic consumers of Estonia, to the EUcommissioned survey, and attempts to have the survey be a combination of
Estonian and European data requirements.”
In 2004, four modules were added (…). They were all commissioned by Estonian
domestic consumers. The topics of the four modules concerned social contacts;
family attitudes and political views; crime, violence and feeling of security; and
ethnic integration.
In 2005, there were three modules in ESS: one by order of Eurostat and the other
two by domestic consumers. The topic of the Eurostat module was “Social
origin”(…) Estonian domestic modules were entitled “From school to work” and
“Trade unions and collective agreements”.
SILC and the French EPCV and SRCV
•
SILC (SRCV) starts in 2004, but…
 Living conditions 1978-1979, 86-87; 93-94
 European Community Household Panel (1994-2001)
 Permanent Living Conditions Survey EPCV (1996-2004)
•
The current French SRCV system took over from the former permanent survey of living conditions (EPCV)
system in 2004
• It reprises some questions from the EPCV and includes some other questions not required at
Eurostat level
• Persons being in the panel for 9 years /vs 4 years required by Eurostat
• See Stéfan Lollivier presentation
Other examples for SILC implementation at national level
•SILC datasets from Eurostat do not contain Swiss data (2007 - 2010).
•The Great Britain component of the EU-SILC dataset is collected by the Office for
National Statistics (ONS) as part of the General Lifestyle Survey (GLF) (held at the
Archive under Special Licence access conditions - see GN 33403).
•The Northern Ireland component is collected by the Northern Ireland Statistics and
Research Agency (NISRA) as part of the Living Conditions Survey (LCS)
European integrated microdata
European Central Bank microdata
•
•
•
•
Household Finance and Consumption Survey
Every 3 years
First deliverable in 2013
No pre-existing national survey in some countries while older waves in others
 France:
 Every 6 years and oldest waves
 Questionnaire 112 pages in France vs 65 pages for the European survey, yet some
variables collected at European level not in the French survey
 Adaptation of the survey was needed (break in the national serie)
 Moved from the NSI to the Central Bank (with consequence for researcher access)
European integrated microdata
Other European government microdata
•
•
The European Commission, the Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs (DG
ECFIN)
 Business and Consumer Surveys
EUROFOUND
 Surveys on working conditions
DG ECFIN and the Business and Consumer Surveys
•The European Commission, the Directorate-General for Economic and Financial
Affairs (DG ECFIN)
•
manages a network of national institutes
to conduct a harmonised EU programme
of 6 business and consumer tendency surveys
(quarterly or monthly from 1985, 1995 for services).
Industry
Services
Consumers
Retail trade
Building
Investment
and some others
EUROFOUND and the surveys on working conditions
The European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
•
•
•
An autonomous EU agency
Set up by the Council Regulation (EEC) No. 1365/75 of 26 May 1975
Contributes to the planning and design of better living and working conditions``
3 surveys combining companies and employees surveys
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) : 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010
•
Working conditions and the quality of work and employment
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) : 2003, 2007, 2010
•
A broad range of indicators of quality of life, both objective and subjective
The European Company Survey (ECS) : 2004, 2009, 2013
•
Workplace practices based on the views of both managers and employee representatives
•
Datasets available for download at the ESDS (UKDA)
European Integrated microdata
Other microdata under EU regulations
•
•
•
Information and Communication technologies surveys (TIC)`
 Regulation n°808/2004 and updated regulation 1006/2009 linked with the
European roadmap for the TIC
Household budget surveys (HBS)
 Eurostat recommendations about methodology and harmonization
Censuses
 Successive regulations (2008, 2009, 2010…) to achieve more comparability,
output oriented
National official microdata post- harmonized at European level
•
•
•
Non government bodies
Collected and a posteriori harmonized by universities, archives
 IECM (IPUMs international)
 Censuses
May gather official microdata and academic datasets
 LIS (Luxembourg Income Study)
 Household Budget Survey
 MTUS
 Time Use Survey
More detailed microdata often accessible at national level
IECM/IPUMS and national dissemination of European censuses
IECM + national dissemination
IECM in progress + national dissemination
Only national dissemination
No information
More may be available at national level
Ex. : United Kingdom and France
Several Public Use Files (PUF) available for dwelling, individuals, residential mobility at different
geographical levels on INSEE website
Several Scientific Use Files (SUF) more detailed available for the researchers via Archives
Access to highly detailed microdata available via Secure access for approved research projects
(ONS in UK, CASD/GENES in France)
LIS and MTUS
•
•
LIS and MTUS are examples of post harmonized microdata at European level
from both government sources and non government (universities) sources
More detailed microdata at national level in several countries
LIS is a cross-national data center, located in Luxembourg. LIS is home to the
Luxembourg Income Study Database (LIS) and the Luxembourg Wealth Study
(LWS)Database.
Pays
Enquête
Année
Income Unit
Data Collection
Cyprus
LWS
2001
Primary Economy Unit
Central Bank of Cyprus
and University of Cyprus
Finland
LWS
1998
Household Wealth Survey Statistics Finland
Germany
LWS
2001
German Socio Economic
German Institute for
Panel
Economic Research, DIW
Survey of Household
Bank of Italy
Italy
LWS
2002
Income and Wealth
UK
LWS
2000
British Household Panel
Institute for Social and
Survey + cross national
Economics Research
equivalent files
LIS
1999
Family Resource Survey
Department for Work and
Pension , ONS, National
Centre for Social
Research
The Centre for Time Use Research collects Time Use Surveys
France
Time Use Survey
BELGIUM 1966
The
Multinational
INSEE
Comparative
Time- Pierre Feldheim and Claude Javeau, Sociological
Budget Research Project
BULGARIA 1988
Institute, Free University of Brussels
The 1988 Bulgarian National Time Use Central Statistical Office, Institute of Sociology at the
Survey
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
FINLAND 1987-88 Time Use Survey
HUNGARY 1965
The
Multinational
Statistics Finland
Comparative
Time- Sociological Research Group, Hungarian Academy of
Budget Research Project
ITALY 1979/80
Sciences
Il Tempo della Citta. Una Ricerca Sull'uso University of Turin
del Tempo Quotidiano in una Metropoli
UK 1961
The People's Activities
UK 2005
Omnibus Survey, One Day Diary of Time The Office for National Statistics coordinated the study and
Use Module
BBC
collected the data. The Institute for Social and Economic Research
at the University of Essex transferred the diaries into coded
electronic data.
Other OS microdata, non integrated nor post-harmonized at
European level, useful for comparative research
• Example for surveys on living conditions (other than those related to the SILC)
May include some from academic institutions
• Administrative microdata and OS surveys
 Will be increasingly combined and used by researchers
 Examples
 Employers and employees A guide to Linked Employer-Employee Data Sources
in the EU and Beyond (Tanvi Desai, London School of Economics, 2008)

Social security, pensions. The Impact of Social Security Contributions on
Earnings: Evidence from administrative data in France, Germany, Netherlands an
UK ( Antoine Bozio, Research proposal submitted in September 2011 to the Open
Research Area (ORA) call)
Other national surveys on living conditions
Country
Denmark The register for health and social conditions
Estonia
France
Family allowance and child benefits
1957-2012
Estonian Social Survey
2004-2010
Household Budget Survey
2010
Living conditions
78-79; 86-87; 93-94
Permanent Living Conditions Survey (EPCV)
1996-2004
The Statistical survey on income and living conditions (SRCV)
2004-2009
Survey of users of accommodation and hot meal distribution
services (Homeless people)
2001
United
General Lifestyle Survey (GLF)
Kingdom
Living Standards During Unemployment
Norway
1977-2012
2000-2008
1983-1984
English Housing Survey
2008-2011
Norwegian Level of Living Study
1973-2007
Study on housing conditions among low-income families
1995
Welfare and level of living among the very frail elderly
2000
Linked Employer-Employee Data sources, examples of national surveys
Country
Czech
Republic
National surveys
Information System on
Average Earnings (ISAE)
Spain
Germany LIAB (Linked EmployerEmployee Data of the IAB)
Data producer
Access
notes
The
Czech Direct access is only The Structure of Earnings Survey for the Czech Republic is
Ministry of Labour available
on-site
at derived from the ISAE there is no access to the Czech SES
commissions the TREXIMA
data at the national level.
private
agency
TREXIMA
INE does not provide access to any other linked employeremployee or firm panel data resources than SES. The Banco
de España conducts an annual survey of non-financial firms,
the Central Balance Sheet Data. However, the microdata for
this survey are only available to researchers affiliated with the
Banco de España
IAB
(Establishment
Panel )
DESTATIS
(employment
statistics)
France
Data access is possible The L-IAB data is a linked employer-employee dataset
via on-site use and constructed from the IAB Establishment Panel and the
afterwards via remote Federal Employment Agencies employment statistics.
data access also.
REPONSE (Relations
Professionnelles et
Negociations d’Entreprise)
DARES
DARES
COI (Changement
Organisationnels et
l’Informatisation)
DARES
Réseau Quetelet ,(SUF)
Enquête Familles at
Employeurs
INED
DADS
INSEE
Labour cost and structure of INSEE
earnings survey (Ecmoss)
Réseau Quetelet, (SUF)
Réseau Quételet, (SUF)
The COI is used for France’s contribution to Eurostat’s ICT
survey
The Structure of Earning Survey for France is a part of this
survey
Country
France
Data sources
DADS
Years
1993-
Data collection
Fiscal and social
administration, INSEE
Provider
Reseau Quételet
(CMH, GENES)
Germany
Sample of Integrated Labour Market
Biographies (SIAB)
1975-2008
IAB
IAB
Fiscal administration;
DESTATIS
DESTATIS
1990-2006
DESTATIS
DESTATIS
1975-2003
ONS
Secure data
service, UKDA
Lohn- und Einkommensteuerstatstik
faktisch anonymisierte Daten (FAST)
Verdienststrukturerhebung (VSE)
United Kingdom New Earnings Survey (NES)
– 1992-2004
Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE) 2004Annual Business Inquiry
Bozio Antoine. The Impact of Social Security Contributions on Earnings: Evidence from
administrative data in France, Germany, Netherlands an UK. Research proposal submitted in
September 2011 to the Open Research Area (ORA) call
III. How to locate and access official microdata within Europe?
Metadata
Transnational access
DwB support and new tools
Metadata
•
•
Highly fragmented at national level
No single point of access even at national level
 Some countries are opening a portal for access to official data (open data initiatives)
yet mostly for aggregate data
 In some countries, archives gather metadata from different government producers
(yet currently only a few)
•
Different metadata standards
 A map providing general trends for NSIs and Archives
•
•
Possible little variations due to lack of information available on the web or very recent
changes)
Does not include other providers as statistical departments
Metadata dissemination at national level for national
microdata: NSIs and Archives
Metadata dissemination at European level
•
•
Each European body (Eurostat, ECB …)
CESSDA, currently only for some national microdata (depending on the perimeter
of the Data Archives members)
o Using NESSTAR
 Based on DDI standard for documentation
 A unified way to look for data and metadata (documentation describing
the data)
 Allows to browse into variables (instead of looking into the
questionnaire)
o Avoid silos between official and academic data
Access
Terminology issues
Access ranging from fully anonymized to highly detailed microdata
• Campus files (CUF)
• Public use files (PUF)
• Scientific Use files (SUF)
• Confidential, highly detailed, sensitive microdata, scientific confidential files (ScF)
However differences remain in terminology
Campus files/public use files
Scientific Use files/ confidential files
Access via CDRom/FTP, on site, remote execution, remote access
Access for Eurostat and other integrated European microdata
•
•
•
•
Eurostat still burdensome
 Even within the framework of a new regulation (See Michel Isnard
presentation)
 A Remote access network in project (DARA ESSnet)
European Central Bank in progress
LIS : remote execution for countries paying fees as members
IPUMS/ IECM free and easy, yet highly anonymized
Access to national OS in Europe
•
Highly fragmented: Different types of accreditation procedures, application
forms, criteria for each type, type of access for each
country/producer/provider/type of data
o Quite long for comparative research
o Ex : Type of access at national level for the national components related to
the SILC
Type of access at national level for the national components related to the SILC
SUF
On-site
access
Remote
Execution
X
X
X
X
X
1967-2011
X
X
France
2004-2009
X
Germany
2005-2008
Countries
Years
Austria
2003-2007
Czech
2005-2010
Estonia
2004-2010
Finland
CUF
PUF
X
Remote
Access
X
X
X
X
Ireland
Italy
2005-2010
X
Latvia
2005-2011
X
Lithuania
2005-2010
Poland
2005-2010
Portugal
2004-2009
Slovakia
2006-2011
X
X
X
X
X
Slovenia
X
Spain
2004-2011
X
Switzerland
2007-2009
X
X
However transnational access increasingly possible
o Even for highly detailed microdata
o Several maps providing general trends
Based on CESSDAPPP and DwB work
1 National Statistical Institute selected per country
Does not include the NSAs and other government bodies
Only general trends (possible little variations due to recent changes)
o Important for future comparative research based on administrative data difficult to
integrate at European level
Transnational access to Public Use Files
In some countries the number of PUF is (very) limited.
Transnational access to Scientific Use Files
Data archives providing access to SUF for OS
Transnational access to confidential data
III.
DwB support
Current activities and future perspectives
CIMES and MISSY
DwB support
•
Current activities
 Support for transnational access to highly detailed microdata from 4 countries (Germany,
France, UK, Netherlands)
 DwB regular calls, support for accreditation, financial support for travel and fees for
RDCs (2 remaining calls)
 Metadata
 CIMES Centralising and Integrating Metadata from European Statistics
Currently 1,796 datasets from 22 European countries including information on access
conditions
 MISSY Microdata Information System
An online information system with metadata for all integrated European microdata from
official statistics held by Eurostat and Integrated European Census Microdata (IECM)
•
Future perspective
 A European Service Centre for Official Statistics (ESC-OS) as a single point of access linked to
the CESSDA Portal
 That could offer a range of services: metadata, training, support for accreditation, a
European Remote Access Network for access to confidential OS
Thanks for Listening
Contact: [email protected]
Website: http://www.dwbproject.org/

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