The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water (SEEA Water) Regional Workshop on Water Accounting Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic 16-18 July 2007 Michael Vardon United Nations Statistics Division.

Report
The System of
Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water
(SEEA Water)
Regional Workshop on Water Accounting
Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
16-18 July 2007
Michael Vardon
United Nations Statistics Division
1
Outline
• Why have environmental accounting?
• Water Accounting and the Global Water
Partnership and Integrated Water Resource
Management
• SEEA Water
• development
• structure
• standard tables
• Indicators from SEEA Water
• Lessons from implementation
2
Why an accounting approach?
• Encourages the adoption of standards
• Introduces accounting concepts to environmental
statistics
• Improves both economic and environmental statistics
by encouraging consistency
• Implicitly defines ownership and hence responsibility
for environmental impacts
• Encourages the development of comprehensive data
sets
• Facilitates international comparisons
3
Strengths of the accounting
approach
• Organised body of information facilitates
integrated economic-environmental analysis
(complements sustainable development
indicators, modelling)
• Comprehensive and consistent, routinely
produced
• Provides a system into which monetary
valuations of environmental costs can be
incorporated
4
Environmental-Economic Accounting
and Environment Statistics
Environment statistics:
Separate piles of information
• Often developed to
answer one particular
question or problem
• Difficult to figure out if
all information is
included
• Not always easy to see
the whole picture, or how
it relates to other things
• Typically not integrated
with economic statistics
5
Environmental-Economic Accounting builds
on Environment and Economic Statistics
Integrated information
Environmental accounts:
• Help to make sense of
the larger picture
• Help to identify pieces
that are missing
• Can make connections to
other statistics,
especially to economic
statistics
6
Terminology
Terminology is not always consistent among
economists, environmental statisticians,
scientists and policy makers
=> Need to use a clear, agreed terminology
One of the SEEA main contribution is the
standardisation of terms and definitions
7
Keys concepts of SEEA
Stocks
Flows
Volume
(e.g. tonnes, m3)
Value
(e.g. $, £, ¥, €)
8
The role and value of
Water Accounting
“SEEAW provides the muchneeded conceptual framework
for monitoring and assessment”
Roberto Lenton,
Global Water Partnership
Global Water
Partnership
9
Integrated Water Resources
Management: core features
• Involves developing efficient, equitable and sustainable
solutions to water and development problems
• Involves aligning interests and activities that are
traditionally seen as unrelated or not well coordinated
(horizontally and vertically)
• Needs knowledge from various disciplines as well as
insights from diverse stakeholders
• Not just water: involves integrating water in overall
sustainable development processes. Also requires
coordinating the management of water with land and
related resources
10
The challenge:
Monitoring and assessing
water resources
for the MDGs
within
an IWRM approach
Global Water
Partnership
11
Development of SEEA Water
• Sub-group on Water Accounting established at the 2003
meeting of the London Group (Rome)
• Sep 2004 SEEA Water discussed at London Group
Meeting (Copenhagen)
• May 2005 1st draft SEEA Water discussed in by sub-group
(New York)
• May 2006 2nd Draft discussed at the User-Producer
Conference (Voorburg)
• Jun 2006 2nd Draft discussed by London Group and
UNCEEA
• Jul-Dec 2006 SEEA Water finalised by electronic
discussion
• More than 20 experts participated in the Sub-group
• UNSD coordinated the group and prepared the various 12
manuscripts
SEEA Water – an interim
international statistical standard
• Part 1 of SEEA Water was adopted by the United
Nations Statistical Commission in March 2007 as
an interim statistical standard
• Part 2 contains the elements of SEEA Water for
which there is less country experience and there is
still some debate
• SEEA Water has been recognized as useful by the
users of information
13
Soil water
(reservoirs, lakes, rivers,
snow, ice and glaciers)
Natural transfers
(e.g. infiltration,
seepage, etc.)
Inflows
downstream
basins and
aquifers
outside
the territory
of reference
Outflows
Groundwater
Sea
Collection of
precipitation
Sea
Evapotranspiration
Abstraction
Returns
Sewerage
Returns
• Stocks and flows
• Economy and
environment
Surface water
upstream
basins and
aquifers
outside
the territory
of reference
Returns
Overview
Inland Water Resource System
Abstraction
SEEA Water
Evapotranspiration
Precipitation
Atmosphere
Households
Other Industries
(incl. Agriculture)
Rest of
the World
Economy
Imports
Water collection,
treatment and supply
Exports
Rest of
the World
Economy
Economy
14
SEEW - Structure
9 Chapters, 2 parts:
• Part 1
• Ch 1. Introduction
• Ch. 2 Water Accounting Framework
• Ch. 3 Physical Supply and Use Tables
• Ch. 4 Emission Accounts
• Ch. 5 Hybrid and Economic Accounts
• Ch. 6 Asset Account
• Part II
• Ch. 7 Quality Account
• Ch. 8 Valuation
• Ch. 9 Policy use
15
12 Standard Tables
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Physical supply
Physical use
Gross and net emissions
Emissions by ISIC 37
Hybrid (Monetary and Physical) supply
Hybrid use
Hybrid supply and use
Hybrid water supply and sewerage for own use
Government accounts for water related collective consumption
services (Monetary)
10. National expenditure for waste management (Monetary)
11. Financial accounts for waste water management (Monetary)
12. Asset account (Physical)
12 Supplementary tables
16
Physical water use: standard table 1
Physical units
Industries (by ISIC categories)
1
233,
4143
35
36
37
38,3
9,
4599
Tot
al
Hou
seh
olds
Res
t of
the
wor
ld
Tot
al
U1 - Total abstraction (=a.1+a.2= b.1+b.2):
a.1- Abstraction for own use
a.2- Abstraction for distribution
b.1- From water resources:
From the
environme
nt
Surface water
Groundwater
Soil water
b.2- From other sources
Collection of precipitation
Abstraction from the sea
Within the
economy
U2 - Use of water received from other
economic units
U=U1+U2 - Total use of water
17
Physical water supply: standard table 2
Physical units
Industries (by ISIC categories)
1
Within the
economy
233,
4143
35
36
37
38,3
9,
4599
Tota
l
Hou
seh
olds
Rest
of
the
worl
d
Tota
l
S1 - Supply of water to other economic units
of which: Reused water
Wastewater to sewerage
S2 - Total returns (= d.1+d.2)
d.1- To water resources
To the
environme
nt
Surface water
Groundwater
Soil water
d.2- To other sources (e.g. Sea water)
S - Total supply of water (= S1+S2)
Consumption (U - S)
18
Water emissions: standard table 3
Physical units
Industries (by ISIC categories)
Pollutant
1
233,
4143
35
36
38,
39,
4599
Tota
l
Hou
seh
olds
Rest
of
the
wor
ld
Tota
l
Gross emissions (= a + b)
a. Direct emissions to water (= a1 + a2 = b1 +
b2)
a1. Without treatment
a2. After on-site treatment
b1. To water resources
b2. To the sea
b. To Sewerage (ISIC 37)
d. Reallocation of emission by ISIC 37
e. Net emissions (= a. + d.)
19
Hybrid water use: standard table 6
Physical and monetary units
Intermediate consumption of industries (by ISIC
categories)
Actual final consumption
35
1
233,
4143
Tot
al
Households
of
which:
Hydro
36
37
38,
39,
4599
Total
industry
Final
cons
umpt
ion
expe
nditu
res
Socia
l
transf
ers in
kind
from
Gover
nmen
t and
NPIS
Hs
Total
Govern
ment
Capital
formation
Exp
orts
Total intermediate consumption and use
(monetary units)
of which: Natural water (CPC 1800)
Sewerage services (CPC 941)
Total value added (monetary units)
Total use of water (physical units)
U1 - Total Abstraction
of which: a.1- Abstraction for own use
U2 - Use of water received from other
economic units
20
Tot
al
use
s at
pur
cha
ser’
s
pric
e
Physical water assets: standard table 12
physical units
EA.131 Surface water
EA.1311
Reservoirs
EA.1312
Lakes
EA.1313
Rivers
EA.1314
Snow, Ice and
Glaciers
EA.132
Groundwater
EA.133
Soil
water
Total
Opening Stocks
Increases in stocks
Returns from the economy
Precipitation
Inflows
from upstream territories
from other resources in the territory
Decreases in stocks
Abstraction
of which Sustainable use
Evaporation/Actual evapotranspiration
Outflows
to downstream territories
to the sea
to other resources in the territory
Other changes in volume
Closing Stocks
21
Basic concepts and definitions
Evapotranspiration
Inland Water Resource System
Surface water
upstream
basins and
aquifers
outside
the territory
of reference
Soil water
(reservoirs, lakes, rivers,
snow, ice and glaciers)
Natural transfers
(e.g. infiltration,
seepage, etc.)
Inflows
downstream
basins and
aquifers
outside
the territory
of reference
Outflows
Groundwater
Collection of
precipitation
Sea
Returns
Sea
Abstraction
Evapotranspiration
Returns
Abstraction
Sewerage
Returns
• Abstraction from
environment
• Supply and use within
economy
• Returns to
environment
Precipitation
Atmosphere
Households
Other Industries
(incl. Agriculture)
Rest of
the World
Economy
Imports
Water collection,
treatment and supply
Exports
Rest of
the World
Economy
Economy
22
Indicators from SEEA Water
Source of pressure on water resources:
• Macro trends in total water use, emissions, water
use by natural source and purpose, etc.
‘Decoupling’ economic growth and water use,
pollution
• Industry-level trends: indicators used for
environmental-economic profiles
• Technology and driving forces: water
intensity/productivity and total (domestic) water
requirements to meet final demand
• International transport of water and pollution
23
Indicators: economic growth and water pollution
Netherlands: water pollution and
economic growth, 1999-2001
120
115
110
nutrients
105
metals
100
wastewater
95
GDP
90
85
80
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
24
Indicators: economic growth and water use
Botswana: water use and economic
Growth, 1993-1998
1.3 0
Volum e of w ater
1.2 5
Per capita w ater use
1.2 0
GDP per m 3 w ater
1.15
1.10
1.0 5
1.0 0
0 .9 5
0 .9 0
19 9 3 / 9 4
19 9 4 / 9 5
19 9 5 / 9 6
19 9 6 / 9 7
19 9 7 / 9 8
19 9 8 / 9 9
25
Environmental Economic Profiles
Sweden 1995
Pulp, paper and paper products
0
20
40
60
80
100
Chem icals and chem ical products
0
20
40
60
80
100
P ro ductio n value
Value added
Ho urs wo rked
Use o f energy
Use o f self-supplied water
Use o f distributed water
Use o f water fo r co o ling
Use o f water in the industrial pro cess
Other uses o f water
Direct discharge o f wastewater
Discharge to M WWTP
EPE internal expenditures
EPE payments to M WWTP
EPI fo r wastewater
26
International transport of pollution
Share of pollution in rivers in the Netherlands originating abroad
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Arsenic
Copper
Zinc
27
Projecting future water demands
Australia 2050
28
Modelling Effects of Price Changes:
Murray-Darling River Basin Australia
Based on historical water use & price data, simulated impact
on GDP of doubling water prices and the expected
increases in water use efficiency (WUE) of 1-2%
Irrigated agriculture
Dryland agriculture
Food and fibre processing
Other industries
Total impact on GDP
Increase in GDP, A$million
1% increase
2% increase
WUE
WUE
-24
78
-51
-112
44
262
253
97
410
521
29
Key lessons from countries
implementing SEEA Water
1. Build on existing statistical/scientific knowledge and information
2. Cooperation essential
• Within statistical offices
• Between statistical offices, water departments, economic/planning
departments and agricultural departments
• With the water supply industry
• With the scientific and research communities
• Between users and producers of information
3. A phased approach is needed
• Start with issues of most importance. In water scarce countries it has
been water supply and use. In industrialized countries it has been
pollution.
4. Pilot or experimental accounts are very useful
• Users will appreciate the benefits more easily with concrete examples,
even if they are small scale.
30
Contact details
Michael Vardon
Adviser on Environmental-Economic Accounting
United Nations Statistics Division
New York 10017 USA
Room DC2 1532
Phone: +1 917 367 5391
Fax: +1 917 363 1374
Email: [email protected]
31

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