14.3 Blood Groups and Transfusions

Report
Sponge: Set up Cornell
Notes on pg. 85
Topic:
14.3 Blood Groups and
Transfusions
Essential Questions:
1. What is the main
concern when blood is
transfused from one
individual to another?
14.3 Blood Groups and Transfusions
2.1 Atoms, Ions,
and Molecules
• In the 1800’s human blood was being used for blood
transfusions (earlier animal blood was used)
• Results were very unpredictable
• Some people were cured
• But many were killed
• The success rate was so poor, many nations banned
transfusions
Karl Landsteiner:
• Began investigating why some blood
transfusions work, and some do not
• In 1900, he determined that blood was of
differing types and that only certain
combinations of them were compatible
• By 1910, the identification of the ABO
blood antigen gen explained the observed
blood type incompatibilities
Blood Transfusions (2m8s)
Antigens and Antibodies
• Agglutination: the clumping of red
blood cells resulting from a transfusion
reaction
• May result in death
Symptoms
• Anxiety
• Breathing difficulty
• Facial flushing
• Headache
• Severe pain in head/neck/back
• RBCs burst
• Jaundice
• Kidneys fail resulting in death
5
Agglutination
6
Antigens: RBC surface molecules
Antibodies: proteins carried in the blood’s plasma
Called “anti” because they are “against” specific
antigens
Avoiding the mixture of certain kinds of antigens and
7
antibodies prevents agglutination
ABO Blood Group
ABO Blood Group: Based on the presence or absence of two
major antigens on red blood cell membranes
• antigen A
• antigen B
8
Type A Blood
Contains:
Antigen A
Anti-B Antibody
• Will clot in the
presence of Anti-A
Antibody
9
Type B Blood
Contains:
Antigen B
Anti-A Antibody
• Will clot in the
presence of Anti-B
Antibody
10
Type AB Blood
Contains:
Antigen A
Antigen B
No Antibodies
• Will clot in the
presence of Anti-A
or Anti-B Antibody
11
Type O Blood
Contains:
No Antigens
Anti-A Antibody
Anti-B Antibody
• Will not clot in the
presence of Anti-A
or Anti-B Antibody
12
Blood Types:
Antigens and Antibodies
13
ABO Blood Group
14
Universal Donor: If a blood type lacks antigens, it can
theoretically be transfused into persons with any other type
of blood
• Which type of blood is considered the “universal donor”?
• Type O
Universal Recipient: If a blood type lacks antibodies, it can
theoretically receive blood from any other type of blood
• Which type of blood is considered the “recipient”?
• Type AB
BUT…It is always best to use donor
blood of the same type for
transfusions!!!!!
15
Blood Types for Transfusion
16
Rh Blood Group
Rh positive: presence of antigen D or and other Rh antigens on the
red blood cell membranes
• Can receive Rh+ or Rh- blood
Rh negative: lack of antigen D or Rh antigens
• Can only receive Rh- blood
17
18
19
Erythroblastosis Fetalis: A condition when an Rh- woman
is pregnant with an Rh+ fetus
•
•
•
First pregnancy might be uneventful
At birth- infants blood may mix with mothers causing her to
produce anti-Rh antibodies
Second Rh+ pregnancy: mother’s anti-Rh antibodies may attack
fetal red cells causing possible miscarriage, brain damage, or
death
20
The Blood Typing Game
http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/med
icine/bloodtypinggame/
Or Google: Nobel Prize Blood Typing Game
21
Blood Typing Lab
Objective: The students will determine the ABO/Rh antigens
present in unknown blood samples and learn the
importance of blood types and blood typing to transfusions
and the immune response
Problem: Mr. Walker is brought into the
emergency room after a car accident. He is in
need of a blood transfusion. He has type A
blood. There are four donors available. Based
on the antigens and antibodies in the blood for
Mr. Walker and the donors, determine from
whom Mr. Walker can safely receive a
transfusion.
22
Blood Typing Lab Directions
• Follow the directions on your Procedure paper for each
of the two lab activities.
• Use the Ward’s Blood Typing Poster to help you
analyze your results
23
Type A Blood: (Antigen A)
Anti-A: agglutination (+)
Anti-B: no agglutination (-)
Type B Blood (Antigen B)
Anti-A: no agglutination (+)
Anti-B: agglutination (-)
Type AB Blood: (Antigen A &B)
Anti-A: agglutination (+)
Anti-B: agglutination (-)
Type O Blood: No Antigens
Anti-A: no agglutination (+)
Anti-B: no agglutination (-)
Rh Factor: Antigen D or Rh Antigens
Anti-Rh:
Rh+:agglutination
Rh-: no agglutination
25

similar documents