Youth Reproductive Health and Rights

Report
REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AND RIGHTS
FOR YOUNG PEOPLE.
PRESENTED BY:
MS.ROSEMARY MUGWE
REGIONAL POLICY COORDINATOR
IPAS AFRICA ALLIANCE.
Definition of Reproductive Health
• Reproductive health is defined as a state of physical, mental,
and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive
system at all stages of life.
• Within the framework of WHO's definition of health as a state
of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not
merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive
health addresses the reproductive processes, functions and
system at all stages of life. Reproductive health, therefore,
implies that people are able to have a responsible, satisfying
and safe sex life and that they have the capability to
reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often
to do so." ( WHO)
RH includes:
• Family Planning
• STI prevention and management ( HIV included)
• Pregnancy related care
• Unwanted pregnancy and abortion
• Prevention and management of reproductive health
cancers
• Infertility management
Why the Youth? Facts
• Half the world’s population is under the age of 25, more than
3 billion people. young people’s choices today will directly
determine the well-being of people around the world for
generations to come.
• At least 215 million women worldwide want to limit or space
their births, but don’t have access to modern family planning
methods. It is estimated that the unmet need for family
planning is twice as great for young people.
• For young women ages 15 to 19 in low- and middle- income
countries, complications from pregnancy are the leading cause
of death. ( WHO)
Cont.
• Adolescent girls are at the highest risk for maternal
mortality. Each additional pregnancy increases a
girl’s risk of maternal death. Maternal mortality was
found to be twice as high for women aged 15–19
years compared to women aged 20–29 years.(WHO)
• Globally, 70 percent of women hospitalized with
complications from an unsafe abortion are under the
age of 20 (Plan 2007)
• About half of the global deaths from unsafe abortion
are in young women ages 24 or younger (WHO
2004)
Cont.
• Eighty-two million girls in developing countries,
ages 10 to 17, marry before their 18th birthday.
• Girls under the age of 16 are at increased risk for
prolonged obstructed labor which often leads to
fistula because the pelvis of a young girl is not
yet fully developed for childbirth
Cont.
• A study of 18 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in
Africa between 1993 and 2001 found that two out of five
unmarried females aged 15–24 were sexually active.
• According to a 2008 UNAIDS report, 3.3 million youth in subSaharan Africa are living with AIDS and 76 percent of youth
living with HIV/AIDS are female.
• WHO estimates that youth account for almost 60 percent of
unsafe abortions performed in Africa.
Cont.
• As of 2005, one-third of all women living with HIV are
between the ages of 15 and 24. Of the over 1 billion
youth (ages 15-24) worldwide, some 10 million are living
with HIV. Every day, an estimated 6,000 youth are
infected with the virus.
• In Africa, about 3 million girls are at risk for FGM
annually.
• An estimated 100 to 140 million girls and women
worldwide are currently living with the consequences of
FGC/FGM. Adverse obstetric outcomes.
What do we know about RH?
• TEEN WEB STUDY findings.
Challenges faced by youth while
accessing RH services
• The services are designed for the adult client and service
providers are not trained in adolescent sexuality and youthfriendly SRH concepts;
• Many of the facilities’ working environments are not youth
friendly, and services for adolescents are poorly publicized;
• Service provider attitudes and biases are a great barrier to
youth services;
• Privacy and confidentiality are generally lacking;
Right to RH for the Youth
• Reproductive health rights are Human rights that
appear in several International rights instruments,
regional documents and national documents.
• They apply equally to the youth as to other adult men
and women.
WHO Strategy
• The WHO Global reproductive health strategy was
adopted in the 57th World HealthAssembly(WHA
• MDG5b
• ICPD
African Youth Charter
• Article 16: Health
2. State parties shall undertake to pursue the full
implementation of this right and in particular shall take
measures to:
b). Secure the full involvement of youth in identifying
their reproductive and health needs and designing
programmes that respond to these needs with special
attention to vulnerable and disadvantaged youth:
c).Provide access to youth friendly reproductive health
services including contraceptives, antenatal and post natal
services:
• e). Institute comprehensive programs to prevent the
transmission of sexually transmitted infection and HIV/AIDs by
providing education, information, communication and
awareness creation as well as making protective measures and
reproductive health services available;
• i). Institute comprehensive programmes including legislative
steps to prevent unsafe abortion;
Countries that have ratified
AYC
• Signature= 38
• Ratification = 24
Knowing your RH rights is empowering!
• The Right to Life
•
• The Right to Equality, and to be Free from all Forms of Discrimination
• The Right to Privacy
• The Right to Information and Education
• The Right to Choose Whether or Not to Marry and to Found and Plan a
Family
•
• The Right to Health Care and Health Protection
• The Right to the Benefits of Scientific Progress
RECOMENDATIONS
• GIMAC network should create awareness in all its networks
on the importance of youth RH by disseminating information
and in particular Art.16 of the Africa Youth Charter
• GIMAC network should lobby heads of states to ratify the
African Youth Charter, domesticate it and put systems in place
to ensure efficient implementation.
• Urge member states to harmonize Reproductive health
national laws and policies with international and regional
instruments.
• We should lobby our Governments to put a budget in place for
youth friendly quality reproductive health services .( best
practice; sanitary towels in Kenya)
Quote!
.
YOUTH REQUIRE OUR BEST EFFORTS. THEY DESERVE OUR
BEST EFFORTS. TODAY, THEY CHALLENGE US TO ENHANCE
THEIR WELLBEING THROUGH ENACTING SOUND POLICIES,
ENFORCING THE PRUDENT POLICIES THAT EXIST AND MOST OF
ALL: LISTENING TO THEIR NASCENT WISDOM.( Hon Anyang’’Nyongo,
Minster of Health in Kenya)
Thank you

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