Chapter 26: World War II 1939-1945 26.1: Paths to War The Road to War  Japan    Invaded Chinese territory of Manchuria to build an empire and gain.

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Chapter 26:
World War II
1939-1945
26.1: Paths to War
The Road to War
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Japan
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Invaded Chinese territory of Manchuria to build an empire and
gain raw materials
Japan withdrew from League of Nations
1937, Japan expanded further into China into Nanjing
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Brutal invasion – 250,000 Chinese killed
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Japan moves to Southeast Asia for natural resources
US threatens to apply economic sanctions (restrictions
intended to enforce international law) if Japan didn’t leave SE
Asia
Japan launches surprise attack on US and European colonies
in SE Asia
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Italy
Attacked Ethiopia to expand and gain natural
resources
 Italians win with superior military technology
 League of Nations agreed to stop the sale of weapons
to Italy, but not all members abided
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Germany
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Expansion driven by Hitler’s desire to build a Third Reich, restore
national pride, establish Aryan race
Aggression
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Hitler rebuilds German Army
1936, Germans move into the Rhineland (Germany’s border with France)
1938, Hitler takes over Austria and the Sudetenland (part of
Czechoslovakia)
Violations of Treaty of Versailles! League of Nations too weak!
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Munich Conference, 1938
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Western democracies adopted policy of Appeasement
Nations gave into aggressive demands to maintain peace
 Hitler continues expansion; takes over all of Czechoslovakia
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Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
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Agreement between Hitler and Stalin to not attack
each other
War Begins
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Hitler’s invasion of Poland, September 1, 1939
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Poland – no natural barriers for protection
Leads Great Britain and France to declare war on Germany
Germany uses Blitzkrieg – lightning warfare
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(300 tanks and supplies), airplanes
Alliances
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Axis Powers – Germany, Italy, Japan
Allied Powers – Great Britain, France (Soviet Union, China,
US)
26.2
The Course of WWII
Europe at War
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Hitler’s Early Victories
April 1940 – Nazis overrun Norway, Denmark, the
Netherlands and Belgium
 June, 1940 – Nazis invade France
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French government forced into exile
 Germans occupy ¾ of France, including Paris
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Turning Points
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Entry of the United States (1941)
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US declared neutrality, but supplied
arms, food, ships to the Allies
To combat Japanese aggression, the
US banned the sale of war materials to
the Japanese
Angered by this, Japan launched a
surprise attack on American military
bases at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on
December 7th, 1941.
2,400 people were killed, many ships
and planes destroyed
US declares war on Japan; this gives
Allies added strength
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Battle of Stalingrad (1942-1943)
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Germans invade the Soviet Union
in 1941, and Hitler wants to
takeover Stalingrad, an industrial
center.
Russians counter-attack; troops and
a freezing winter cause Germans to
surrender.
The Red Army (Soviets) advance
toward Germany
This World War II cartoon is showing the relationship between
climate and the
a. inability of Nazi forces to defeat the Soviet Union
b. success of Allied troops after D-day
c. efforts by Allied troops to control Berlin
d. casualties suffered by the Soviet Union
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Invasion of Normandy
Allies invaded France on June 6, 1944, aka D-Day
 Allied troops were ferried across the English
Channel, landing on the beaches of Normandy
 They broke through German defenses and freed
Paris from German control
 Allies move from France into Germany, meeting up
with the Soviets (two-front war for Germans)
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The War Ends
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The Yalta Conference
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February 1945, Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchill
Division of Germany – British, French, American, Soviet forces
would control a zone of Germany
Agreed that Stalin would oversee the creation of new governments
in Eastern Europe
War in Europe ends with Germans’ surrender on May 7th,
1945
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Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Japanese refused to surrender, despite American
bombings of Japanese cities
 On August 6th, 1945, Americans drop an atomic
bomb on Japanese city of Hiroshima. It flattened 4
square miles and killed 70,000 people
 A few days later, another a-bomb was dropped on
Nagasaki, killing 40,000
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War in Pacific ends with Japanese surrender on
August 10th, 1945
26.3
The Holocaust
and
Other Wartime Atrocities
The Holocaust
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Hitler’s Final Solution
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Plan to commit genocide (attempt to destroy an entire ethnic or religious group)
against the Jews throughout Nazi-Europe
First, Hitler limited rights of and encouraged violence against
Jews
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November 8, 1938
“Night of broken glass” – Jewish synagogues, businesses, cemeteries, schools and
homes destroyed
Day after, 30,000 Jews arrested for being Jewish and more restrictive laws
enforced
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Then, Hitler forced Jews into ghettos and
transported them to over 300 concentration camps
or death camps
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Auschwitz
6 million Jews die; starved, shot, gassed to death
Auschwitz
Bataan Death March
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In the Philippines, Japanese soldiers forced
American and Filipino prisoners of war to
march up the Bataan Peninsula.
65 miles
Survivors were brought to concentration camps
Nanjing Massacre
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1937, Japan’s brutal invasion of China
300,000 Chinese killed
*All of these events are
HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS!
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26.4
Home Front and
Aftermath
Total War
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Democratic governments
increase power
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Order military and industrial
mobilization
Women enter workforce
Help produce planes, ships,
ammunition
 Drove trucks and ambulances,
decoded messages, served as nurses
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Bombing increases
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Many civilians killed
Impact of WWII
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75 million people dead
Aerial bombardment left cities in
ruins
War Crime Trials/Nuremberg Trials
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Nuremberg, Germany
22 Nazis tried for “crimes against
humanity”
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Some imprisoned, some given death
penalty
Leaders held accountable for actions
during wartime
Coventry, England
Nuremberg Trials
Dresden, Germany
Hiroshima, Japan
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Occupied Nations
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Western nations occupied West
Germany and Japan
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Soviet forces occupied East
Germany and most of eastern
Europe
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To avoid future war and built
new gov’ts with democratic
constitutions
Established communist gov’ts
Europe divided – democracy in
the west and communism in
the east  Cold War!
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The United Nations
Created in 1945; A place to
discuss world problems and
develop solutions
 2 Main bodies:
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General Assembly
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Includes representatives from all
member nations; each has one
vote
Security Council
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15 member nations; 5 which are
permanent – US, Russia, France,
Great Britain, China
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Self-determination
European colonialism declines throughout the world
 Rise of independent nations in Asia and Africa
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Compare/Contrast Essay
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Using the chart, write a welldeveloped Essay comparing and
contrasting WWI and WWII
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Compare: means to analyze the
similarities
Contrast: means to analyze the
difference
You are to choose four
categories from the chart and
analyze where both Wars are
similar and different in those
categories
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Example
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Category:
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Compare:
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Outcome
Both Wars required an outcome
of a peace keeping organization
Contrast:
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Successful vs. Unsuccessful
League of nations VS. United
Nations
Things To Remember
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Essay should be 6
paragraphs
Intro and conclusion
should be more than 2
sentences
Label everything for the
reader
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Categories
Where you compare
Where you contrast
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Labeling should be done
NEATLY in the margin
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Not last minute
You may type this essay
You must study this
essay
Essay will count as a quiz

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