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9.2 The Pythagorean Theorem Geometry Mrs. Spitz Spring 2005 Objectives/Assignment •Prove the Pythagorean Theorem •Use the Pythagorean Theorem to solve real-life problems such as determining how far a ladder will reach. •Assignment: pp. 538-539 #1-31 all •Assignment due today: 9.1 pp. 531-532 #1-34 all History Lesson •Around the 6th century BC, the Greek mathematician Pythagorus founded a school for the study of philosophy, mathematics and science. Many people believe that an early proof of the Pythagorean Theorem came from this school. •Today, the Pythagorean Theorem is one of the most famous theorems in geometry. Over 100 different proofs now exist. Proving the Pythagorean Theorem •In this lesson, you will study one of the most famous theorems in mathematics—the Pythagorean Theorem. The relationship it describes has been known for thousands of years. Theorem 9.4: Pythagorean Theorem •In a right triangle, the square of the length of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the legs. c a b c2 = a2 + b2 Proving the Pythagorean Theorem •There are many different proofs of the Pythagorean Theorem. One is shown below. Other proofs are found in Exercises 37 and 38 on page 540 and in the Math & History feature on page 557. Given: In ∆ABC, BCA is a right angle. Proof: Prove: c = a + b 2 2 2 Plan for proof: Draw altitude CD to the hypotenuse just like in 9.1. Then apply Geometric Mean Theorem 9.3 which states that when the altitude is drawn to the hypotenuse of a right triangle, each leg of the right triangle is the geometric mean of the hypotenuse and the segment of the hypotenuse that is adjacent to that leg. Proof Statements: Reasons: 1. Draw a perpendicular from C to AB. 2. and c = a a e c = b b f 1. Perpendicular Postulate 2. Geometric Mean Thm. 3. ce = a2 and cf = b2 3. Cross Product Property 4. ce + cf = a2 + b2 4. Addition Property of = 5. c(e + f) = a2 + b2 5. Distributive Property 6. e + f = c 6. Segment Add. Postulate 7. c2 = a2 + b2 7. Substitution Property of = Using the Pythagorean Theorem •A Pythagorean triple is a set of three positive integers a, b, and c that satisfy the 2 2 2 equation c = a + b For example, the integers 3, 4 and 5 form a Pythagorean Triple because 52 = 32 + 42. Ex. 1: Finding the length of the hypotenuse. •Find the length of the hypotenuse of the right triangle. Tell whether the sides lengths form a Pythagorean Triple. 12 5 x Solution: (hypotenuse)2 = (leg)2 + (leg)2 x2 = 52 + 122 x2 = 25 + 144 x2 = 169 x = 13 Because the side lengths 5, 12 and 13 are integers, they form a Pythagorean Triple. Many right triangles have side lengths that do not form a Pythagorean Triple as shown next slide. 12 5 x Pythagorean Theorem Substitute values. Multiply Add Find the positive square root. Note: There are no negative square roots until you get to Algebra II and introduced to “imaginary numbers.” Ex. 2: Finding the Length of a Leg •Find the length of the leg of the right triangle. x 7 14 Solution: (hypotenuse)2 = (leg)2 + (leg)2 142 = 72 + x2 196 = 49 + x2 147 = x2 √147 = x √49 ∙ √3 = x 7√3 = x x 7 14 Pythagorean Theorem Substitute values. Multiply Subtract 49 from each side Find the positive square root. Use Product property Simplify the radical. In example 2, the side length was written as a radical in the simplest form. In real-life problems, it is often more convenient to use a calculator to write a decimal approximation of the side length. For instance, in Example 2, x = 7 ∙√3 ≈ 12.1 Ex. 3: Finding the area of a triangle •Find the area of the triangle to the nearest tenth of a meter. •You are given that the base of the triangle is 10 meters, but you do not know the height. 7m 7m h 10 m Because the triangle is isosceles, it can be divided into two congruent triangles with the given dimensions. Use the Pythagorean Theorem to find the value of h. Solution: 7m 7m h 10 m Steps: Reason: (hypotenuse)2 = (leg)2 + (leg)2 72 = 52 + h2 49 = 25 + h2 24 = h2 √24 = h Pythagorean Theorem Substitute values. Multiply Subtract 25 both sides Find the positive square root. Now find the area of the original triangle. Area of a Triangle 7m 7m h 10 m Area = ½ bh = ½ (10)(√24) ≈ 24.5 m2 2 The area of the triangle is about 24.5 m Ex. 4: Indirect Measurement •Support Beam: The skyscrapers shown on page 535 are connected by a skywalk with support beams. You can use the Pythagorean Theorem to find the approximate length of each support beam. •Each support beam forms the hypotenuse of a right triangle. The right triangles are congruent, so the support beams are the same length. Use the Pythagorean Theorem to show the length of each support beam (x). Solution: (hypotenuse)2 = (leg)2 + (leg)2 x2 = (23.26)2 + (47.57)2 x2 = √ (23.26)2 + (47.57)2 x ≈ 13 Pythagorean Theorem Substitute values. Multiply and find the positive square root. Use a calculator to approximate. Reminder: •Friday is the last day to turn in assignments for credit for the quarter. •Quiz after 9.3 on Monday 3/10/05. •Quiz after 9.5 probably Thursday (5th) and Friday (2nd and 6th). •Test on Chapter 9 will be before you go on Spring Break. Do yourself a favor and take it before you go.