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Report
From Discipline to Dialogue:
Engaging Student Voice
December 16, 2014
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Today’s Agenda
 Erin Russ, Program Associate, American Youth Policy
Forum
 Dr. Anne Gregory, Associate Professor, Rutgers
University Graduate School of Applied and Professional
Psychology
 Vickie Shoap, Restorative Justice Specialist, Fairfax
County Public Schools
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From Discipline to Dialogue: Changing the
Conversation about Classroom Discipline
@aypf_tweets
Adding to the Conversation
• The problems associated with school discipline have been
well-documented.
• So, what’s next?
• Synthesis of information in four areas:
• The problems associated with school discipline
• Research Connections
• Role of state policy
• District, school and community solutions
Key Takeaways
• Better opportunities to engage student voice are needed.
• positive, two-way communication between students and adults is key.
• Schools, districts and communities are building programs that
allow for and support these conversations.
• States are utilizing a range of policy options to support this
work locally.
The Problems Associated with Discipline
• AYPF asked: What are the problems associated with school
discipline?
• Key takeaways: overuse and disproportionate impact
• Millions suspended (in-school and out-of-school) each year.
• 130,000 expelled.
• Disproportionate impact on African-American students, students with
disabilities, and English language learners.
• Resources
• United States Department of Education Civil Rights Data Collection
Research
• AYPF asked: What does research tell us about discipline
disparities and alternatives?
• Key takeaways: Interactions and perceptions between students
and teachers are important.
• Resources:
• UCLA Civil Rights Project
• The Equity Project at Indiana University
• The Kirwan Institute
State Policy Opportunities
• AYPF asked: What role should state policy play in addressing the
problems associated with discipline?
• Key takeaways: States are utilizing a range of policy options.
• Resources/Examples:
• Maryland: Multi-pronged Approach
• Oregon: Restorative Justice Framework
• Georgia: Positive Behavior Intervention Supports (PBIS)
Local Innovations
• AYPF asked: How are districts, schools, and communities
addressing the issue of discipline?
• Key takeaway: Customizable community solutions.
• Resources
• Fairfax County Public Schools Restorative Justice Program
• Denver Public Schools MOU with police department
• Connecticut Youth Service Bureaus
From Discipline to
Dialogue:
Engaging Student Voice
Anne Gregory, Ph.D.
Rutgers University
Graduate School of Applied and
Professional Psychology
[email protected]
Exclusion from school is
not an effective intervention
• Little evidence supports the benefits of punitive and
exclusionary approaches.
• In fact, punitive discipline can have negative
consequences:
o After accounting for demographics, attendance, and
course performance, each additional suspension
further decreases a student’s odds of graduating high
school by 20% (Balfanz, Byrnes, and Fox, 2013).
o Segregation of students who break rules with students
who also break rules can increase negative behavior
(Dishion & Dodge, 2005; Hemphill, Toumbourou, Herrenkohl, McMorris, & Catalano, 2006; Mayer, Butterworth,
Nafpaktitis, & Suzer-Azaroff, 1983).
Racial Disparities in School Discipline
Secondary School Suspension Rates*
30
24.3%, AA students
25
Asian/PI
20
American Indian
15
10
White
11.8%
Latino
Black
5
0
1972-73
2009-10
Source: Data from the U.S. Department of Education’s 2009-10 Civil Rights Data Collection
Figure from Losen, D. & Martinez, T. (2013) Out of School & Off Track: The overuse of Suspensions in American Middle and High
Schools.
* Based on non-duplicated student counts.
Race remains a predictor
of the discipline gap…
Breaking schools’ rules (Texas longitudinal study)
Researchers accounted for 83 different risk
variables to isolate the effect of race alone on
disciplinary actions. They found:
• …“African-American students had a 31
percent higher likelihood of a school
discretionary action, compared to otherwise
identical white and Hispanic students”
(Fabelo et al., 2011).
.
Concerning trends in
school discipline
Male students
Across a K-12 sample, males received 3 times more referrals for behavior
and 22% more referrals for attendance than females (Kaufman et al., 2010).
Latino students
Latino 10th graders were twice as likely as White students to be issued an
out-of-school suspension. Findings accounted for student- and teacherreported misbehavior (Finn & Servoss, 2013).
Black females
In 2009, the average national suspension rate for Black females was 13%;
5% higher than the national average for all students and comparable to
the suspension rate of Latino males (Losen & Martinez, 2013).
Gender non-conforming and LGBT youth
LGB girls experienced about twice as many arrests and convictions as other
girls who had engaged in similar transgressions. They also were expelled at
higher rates (Himmelstein & Bruckner, 2011).
What can educators do?
Actions to:
- Transform punitive discipline
climates,
- Keep students in the classroom,
- Narrow the racial discipline gap
http://rtpcollaborative.indiana.edu/briefing-papers/
School-Based Interventions for Reducing Disparities
• Effective schools offer equity-oriented prevention and intervention
to “resolve and educate” not “deport and discipline.”
•
Preventing discipline disparities:
•
•
•
•
•
Offer supportive relationships,
Academic rigor,
Culturally relevant and responsive teaching,
Bias-free classrooms and respectful school environments
Intervening when conflict occurs:
•
•
•
Problem-solve,
Engage youth and families,
Reintegrate students after conflict.
Offer supportive relationships
• With stronger relationships and more engaging
instruction, negative interactions might be prevented in
the first place.
• When a student breaks the rules, stronger relationships
can help diffuse conflict and disrupt any preconceived
notions or unconsciously held stereotypes.
• With trust and good will, cooperation can be elicited.
(Aronson, 2008, Devine, Forscher, Austin, & Cox, 2012; Gregory & Ripski, 2008)
Relationship building in
classrooms
Trust in Teacher
Relational
Approach
Student
Cooperation
Gregory, A. & Ripski, M. (2008). Adolescent20
trust in teachers:
Implications for behavior in the high school classroom. School
Psychology Review, 37, 337-353.
What students said about relationshiporiented teachers:
• “He doesn't just give students work, he asks about how
they are and how was their weekend.”
• “He personally walks around to every table and
personally shakes everybody's hands and asks them
how their doin’…”
• "She understand how it is for Black kids, so she don't do
us wrong.”
• “He never addresses any race out of, like,
disrespectfully or anything like that.”
• “She likes us to bring all the diversity (in) our class”
They communicate high
expectations:
• “(He’s) one of those teachers who actually cares if you
succeed or not, if you're actually gonna grow up and be
somethin’”
• “(She) is one of those teachers who will help you even if
you need extra time to get work in, we have open
discussions...She's concerned for my right to learn.”
• “She'll pull me off to the side…she, like, I am not gonna
let you sit up there and fail this again.”
High
Academic
Press and
High
Teacher
Support
Lower
Suspension
Rates for
Black and
White
Students
School-Based Interventions for Reducing Disparities
• Effective schools offer equity-oriented prevention and intervention
to “resolve and educate” not “deport and discipline.”
•
Preventing discipline disparities:
•
•
•
•
•
Offer supportive relationships,
Academic rigor,
Culturally relevant and responsive teaching,
Bias-free classrooms and respectful school environments
Intervening when conflict occurs:
•
•
•
Problem-solve,
Engage youth and families,
Reintegrate students after conflict.
Systematic integration of student voice
through RESTORATIVE APPROACHES to
discipline
Mara Schiff’s (2013) summary of a
Restorative Approach to Discipline
•
Focuses on relationships
•
Gives voice to the person
harmed and the person who
caused the harm
•
Engages collaborative problemsolving
•
Dialogue-based decision-making
process
•
An agreed upon plan leads to
actions aimed at repairing the
harm done.
Schiff, M. (2013). Dignity, disparity and desistance: Effective restorative justice strategies to plug the “school-toprison pipeline.” In Center for Civil Rights Remedies National Conference. Closing the School to Research
Gap: Research to Remedies Conference. Washington, DC.
RESTORATIVE APPROACHESDEFINITIONS
Restorative Justice – A theory of justice that
emphasizes repairing the harm.
Restorative practices – A framework for a broad range
of restorative justice approaches that proactively
build a school community based on cooperation,
mutual understanding, trust and respect.
From: DIGNITY IN SCHOOLS CAMPAIGN
MODEL CODEWEBINAR V: RESTORATIVE JUSTICE,
http://www.dignityinschools.org/files/ModelCode_Webinar_RestorativeJustice.pdf
Restorative Practices Continuum from the International
Institute of Restorative Practices (IIRP)
Formal
Conference
Affective
statements
Brief
comments
about how
others were
impacted by
the person’s
behavior.
Affective
Questions
Affective
Questions are
one step
further; asks
questions such
as, who was
affected, how
they were
affected, etc.
Small Impromptu Circles
Conference
Occur when
a few
people meet
briefly to
address and
resolve a
problem.
More
formal RP
that allows
everyone to
have some
say in what
should
happen as a
result of the
wrongdoing
Brings together
offenders,
victims and
communities of
support to repair
harm and
promote healing.
Adapted from Costello, B. , Wachtel, J. & Wachtel, T. (2010)., Restorative circles in schools building community
and enhancing learning.
Experiencing Restorative Practices in
the classroom
My teacher is respectful when talking about feelings.
(Affective Statements)
When someone misbehaves, my teacher responds to
negative behaviors by asking students questions about
what happened, who has been harmed and how the
harm can be repaired. (Restorative Questions)
My teacher uses circles to provide opportunities for
students to share feelings, ideas and experiences.
(Proactive Circles)
(IIRP, 2009)
What the students might experience
through the RP Elements
My teacher asks students for their thoughts and ideas
when decisions need to be made that affect the class
(Fair Process)
My teacher uses circles to respond to behavior
problems and repair harm caused by misbehavior
(Responsive Circles)
My teacher acknowledges the feelings of students
when they have misbehaved (Management of
Shame)
(IIRP, 2009)
Teachers above (n = 16) and below (n = 13) the mean on studentperceived RP implementation and their misconduct/defiance referrals
10
9.13
9
8
African
American/Latino
7
6
5
4
2.92
White/Asian
3
2
1
0.77
1.69
0
High RP
Low RP
Gregory A., Clawson, K., Davis, A., & Gerewitz, J. (2014). The promise of restorative practices to transform
teacher-student relationships and achieve equity in school discipline. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation.
Recent findings in a large urban district
using restorative conferences
Restorative
Conference
Circle
Lower chance
of future
discipline
referral
Rigorous statistical analyses accounted for race, gender, income, ELL status,
disability status, reason for referral.
(Gregory et al., manuscript in preparation)
Resources for Restorative
Practices
Introducing Restorative Justice for Oakland
Youth: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZtdoWo1D3sY
Restorative Justice Student Facilitators: Tier One. Community Building Circle:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RdKhcQrLD1w
Restorative Justice Helps At Risk Kids in West Oakland NBC Bay
Area: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rSObF8hW5DY
Restorative Welcome and Re-entry
Circle: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uSJ2GPiptvc
Restorative Justice Circle: http://vimeo.com/37746907
From Hostility to Harmony:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LQWNyS4QSao
International Institute of Restorative Practices
http://www.safersanerschools.org/
From Discipline to Dialogue:
Engaging Student Voice
QUESTIONS?
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RESTORATIVE JUSTICE
Fairfax County Public Schools
Vickie Shoap
Restorative Justice Specialist ll
[email protected]
571-423-4278
Slides cannot be reproduced or used in
trainings without permission
Fairfax County Public Schools
Fairfax County, Virginia
Borders
Washington DC
Population:
1,111,620
190,000 students
from 150+ countries
196 schools
49 alternative
programs and
centers
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trainings without permission
Principles of Restorative Justice on which
all RJ applications in FCPS are based:
(adapted with permission from Zehr/Mica 1997:Concepts of RJ)
Focus on the harms of wrongdoing more
than on the rule or law that has been
broken.
Empower victims and show equal concern
for their needs in the discipline process.
Support students who have harmed others
while encouraging them to take personal
responsibility for their actions and
understand, accept and carry out their
obligations.
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trainings without permission
Principles of Restorative Justice (cont.)
Provide opportunities for dialogue between
students who have harmed others and those most
affected by the wrongdoing. Participation is always
voluntary.
Involve and empower the affected community
through the process of justice.
Encourage collaboration and reintegration, rather
than punishment and isolation.
Show respect to all parties involved in wrongdoing
and involve all equally.
Slides cannot be reproduced or used in
trainings without permission
Restorative Practices and Restorative Justice in FCPS
Prevention
Intervention
Restorative practices
are skills often utilized in
formal restorative justice
processes that may also
be used in classrooms to
build relationships, create
connections and prevent
harm and violence before
they occur.
Restorative justice is a
formal victim-centered
process for responding to
harm and wrongdoing.
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trainings without permission
Policy: Students Rights and Responsibilities
FCPS Standards of Conduct: Levels of
Intervention
Regulation 2601.28P
For violations involving disruptive or
inappropriate behavior or destruction of
property violations, a restorative justice
conference may be used in lieu of, or in addition
to, disciplinary action, at the discretion of the
principal.
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trainings without permission
Continuum of restorative practices
(RP) and restorative justice (RJ)
applications and training in FCPS:
Restorative Justice
Conference (all):
SR&R violations, student/staff
conflicts, parent/staff
Training: Level 1, Level 2, Level 3
open to all staff
(all) available to all FCPS schools
(MS focus) focus for 2014/15 is middle
schools, available to other schools when
staff is available
Restorative Behavior Intervention (MS focus):
RP deeper reflection activities and engagement,
circles and RJ discipline conferences
Provided by FCPS RJ staff only
Circles, Preventative (all)
Attendance, minor disputes, escalating conflicts,
bullying education, teach conflict resolution skills, team
building Training:
Level 1 & Level 2 + mentoring open to all staff
Restorative Practices In The Classroom (all)
RJ philosophy for classroom management, RP
questions, classroom circles, academic circles and
community building
Training: RP In The Classroom-2 days for teachers
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trainings without permission
Restorative Approaches in FCPS
Intervention
Prevention
Staff
educationuse of
restorative
language
Attendance
circle
programs
Classroom
relationship
building
circles
Preventative
conflict
circles
Conflict
Circles
Re-entry
conferences
Slides cannot be reproduced or used in trainings
without permission
Restorative
Justice
discipline
conference
Restorative
Behavior
Intervention
Student Led Restorative Justice
Thomas Jefferson High School Student Honor Council
2014-15: second year of project.
 14 students trained in restorative justice conference
facilitation.
 Used for academic integrity violations.
 Students are working to change attitudes about
cheating and punishment.
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trainings without permission
FCPS/Police/Court/Community
RJ Diversion Project
 Launched: October 1, 2014
 Partners: Fairfax Co. Public Schools, Police, Juvenile Court,
Neighborhood and Community Services and Northern
Virginia Mediation Services
 Goal: To reduce the number of juveniles in Fairfax County
entering the juvenile justice system from schools and the
community, focus on minority an special needs students,
open to all juveniles
 Unique in the nation: 5 agencies collaborating to reduce
juvenile arrests by using restorative justice to address
crime and wrongdoing
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trainings without permission
Challenges:
 Administration buy-in
 Teacher buy-in
 Cultural proficiency
(staff and parents)
 Overscheduled school staff and families
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trainings without permission
Successes
(3 years of full implementation)
 Increase from 1 to 6 full time staff (central)
 Reaching critical mass in education (800+ admin staff
trained in RJ 101), restorative justice is now part of the
language in FCPS
 Most middle and high schools actively using some
application of RJ
 60% increase in use of RJ for discipline response in 3
years
 Students requesting RJ circles to resolve disputes!
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Results of RJ Implementation
 Builds relationships.
 Creates connections between students and
staff, parents and administrators and students
and their peers.
 Teaches empathy, resilience and life long
conflict resolution skills.
 Encourages personal responsibility.
 Encourages collaboration and reintegration,
rather than punishment and isolation.
 Reduces out of school suspensions.
 Reduces recidivism.
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trainings without permission
Resources:
Fairfax County Public Schools
Special Services, Intervention and Prevention Services
FCPS Restorative Justice Videos:
http://www.ebmcdn.net/fcps/fcps_video_viewer.php?viewnode=630fd9123
aeaa
http://dl.ebmcdn.net/fcps/mp4/insight/2012/is11_restorativejustice.mp4
FCPS Restorative Justice General Information:
http://www.fcps.edu/dss/ips/ssaw/violenceprevention/rj/documents/RJpac
ket.pdf
Slides cannot be reproduced or used in
trainings without permission
Questions for Our Presenters?
 Erin Russ, Program Associate, American Youth Policy
Forum
 Dr. Anne Gregory, Associate Professor, Rutgers
University Graduate School of Applied and Professional
Psychology
 Vickie Shoap, Restorative Justice Specialist, Fairfax
County Public Schools
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