Chapter 4 - Network Access

Report
Chapter 4:
Network Access
Introduction to Networks
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
1
Chapter 4
4.1 Physical Layer Protocols
4.2 Network Media
4.3 Data Link Layer Protocols
4.4 Media Access Control
doda
4.5 Summary
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
2
Chapter 4: Objectives
Students will be able to:
 Explain how physical layer protocols and services
support communications across data networks.
 Build a simple network using the appropriate.
 Explain the role of the data link layer in supporting
communications across data networks.
 Compare media access control techniques and logical
topologies used in networks.
4.0.1.1
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
3
Getting it Connected
Connecting to the Network
Do buttons on
4.1.1.1
4.1.1.1
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
4
Getting it Connected
Connecting to the Network
4.1.1.1
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
5
Getting it Connected
Network Interface Cards
Connecting to the Wireless LAN with a Range Extender
4.1.1.2
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
6
Purpose of the Physical Layer
The Physical Layer
4.1.2.1
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
7
Purpose of the Physical Layer
Physical Layer Media
4.1.2.2
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
8
Purpose of the Physical Layer
Physical Layer Standards
Do buttons on
4.1.2.3
Standard
Networking Standards
organization
•
•
ISO 8877: Officially adopted the RJ connectors (e.g., RJ-11, RJ-45)
ISO 11801: Network cabling standard similar to EIA/TIA 568.
•
•
•
TIA-568-C: Telecommunications cabling standards, used by nearly all
voice, video and data networks.
TIA-569-B: Commercial Building Standards for Telecommunications
Pathways and Spaces
TIA-598-C: Fiber optic color coding
TIA-942: Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard for Data Centers
ANSI
•
568-C: RJ-45 pinouts. Co-developed with EIA/TIA
ITU-T
•
G.992: ADSL
IEEE
•
•
•
802.3: Ethernet
802.11: Wireless LAN (WLAN) & Mesh (Wi-Fi certification)
802.15: Bluetooth
ISO
EIA/TIA
•
4.1.2.3
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
9
Purpose of the Physical Layer
4.1.2.4 Lab - Identifying Network Devices and Cabling
Do lab 4.1.2.4
For a grade
4.1.2.4
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
10
Fundamental Principles of Layer 1
Physical Layer Fundamental Principles
Physical
Components
Frame Encoding
Technique
Signalling
Method
•
•
•
•
•
•
UTP
Coaxial
Connectors
NICs
Ports
Interfaces
• Manchester Encoding
• Non-Return to Zero (NRZ)
techniques
• 4B/5B codes are used with
Multi-Level Transition Level 3
(MLT-3) signaling
• 8B/10B
• PAM5
• Changes in the
electromagnetic field
• Intensity of the
electromagnetic field
• Phase of the
electromagnetic wave
Single-mode Fiber
Multimode Fiber
Connectors
NICs
Interfaces
Lasers and LEDs
Photoreceptors
• Pulses of light
• Wavelength multiplexing using
different colors
• A pulse equals 1.
• No pulse is 0.
Fiber Optic
cable
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Access Points
NICs
Radio
Antennae
• DSSS (direct-sequence spreadspectrum)
• OFDM (orthogonal frequency
division multiplexing)
• Radio waves
Wireless
media
•
•
•
•
Media
Copper
cable
4.1.3.1
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Do buttons on
4.1.3.1
Cisco Confidential
11
Fundamental Principles of Layer 1
Bandwidth
4.1.3.2
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
12
Fundamental Principles of Layer 1
Throughput
Know the
Difference:
• Bandwidth
• Throughput
• Goodput
Try:
www.speedtest.net
One student
Then all at once!
4.1.3.3
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
13
Fundamental Principles of Layer 1
Types of Physical Media
4.1.3.4
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
14
Fundamental Principles of Layer 1
4.1.3.5 Activity - Physical Layer Terminology
Do in Activities on
both buttons
in class
4.1.3.5
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
15
Network Media
Copper Cabling
4.2.1
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
16
Copper Cabling
Characteristics of Copper Media
Do the animation
on 4.2.1.1
4.2.1.1
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
17
Copper Cabling
Copper Media
Know:
UTP
STP
Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable
4.2.1.2
Presentation_ID
Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) cable
Coaxial cable
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
18
Copper Cabling
Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) Cable
4.2.1.3
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
19
Copper Cabling
Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) Cable
Braided or Foil Shield
Foil Shields
4.2.1.4
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
20
Copper Cabling
Coaxial Cable
4.2.1.5
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
21
Copper Cabling
Cooper Media Safety
4.2.1.6
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
22
UTP Cabling
4.2.1.7 Activity - Copper Media Characteristics
Do activity
4.2.1.7
in class
4.2.1.7
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
23
UTP Cabling
Properties of UTP Cabling
4.2.2
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
24
UTP Cabling
Properties of UTP Cabling
Understand
How Cancelation
Works to limit signal
degradation
Each pair has a
Varying the number
of twists
4.2.2.1
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
25
UTP Cabling
UTP Cabling Standards
Click on each cable
on 4.2.2.2
4.2.2.2
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
26
UTP Cabling
UTP Connectors
Do buttons
and watch
video on
4.2.2.3
Note poorly
made cable
on button 3
4.2.2.3
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
27
UTP Cabling
Types of UTP Cable
Know
straight-through
and
crossover
Roll over is use to
console to cisco
routers.
4.2.2.4
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
28
UTP Cabling
Testing UTP Cables
Test newly made
cables for:
• Wire map
• Cable length
• Signal loss due
to attenuation
• Crosstalk
4.2.2.5
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
29
UTP Cabling
4.2.2.6 Activity - Cable Pinouts
Do 4.2.2.6 in class
4.2.2.6
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
30
UTP Cabling
4.2.2.7 Lab - Building an Ethernet Crossover Cable
Do 4.2.2.7 for a
lab grade
4.2.2.7
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
31
Fiber Optic Cabling
Properties of Fiber Optic Cabling
Fiber-optic cabling is
now being used in four
types of industry:
• Enterprise Networks
• FTTH and Access
Networks
• Long-Haul Networks
• Submarine
Networks
4.2.3.1
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
32
Fiber Optic Cabling
Fiber Media Cable Design
Click on the parts of the diagram
on 4.2.3.2
4.2.3.2
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
33
Fiber Optic Cabling
Types of Fiber Media
4.2.3.3
Presentation_ID
Click on buttons on 4.2.3.3
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
34
Fiber Optic Cabling
Network Fiber Connectors
4.2.3.4
Presentation_ID
Click on buttons on 4.2.3.4
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
35
Fiber Optic Cabling
Network Fiber Connectors
 TIA-598 standard which recommends the use of a
• Yellow jacket for single-mode fiber cables
• Orange (or aqua) for multimode fiber cables
4.2.3.4
Presentation_ID
Click on buttons on 4.2.3.4
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
36
Fiber Optic Cabling
Testing Fiber Cables
4.2.3.5
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
37
Fiber Optic Cabling
Fiber versus Copper
Implementation issues
Copper media
Fibre-optic
Bandwidth supported
10 Mbps – 10 Gbps
10 Mbps – 100 Gbps
Distance
Relatively short
(1 – 100 meters)
Relatively High
(1 – 100,000 meters)
Immunity to EMI and RFI
Low
High
(Completely immune)
Immunity to electrical hazards
Low
High
(Completely immune)
Media and connector costs
Lowest
Highest
Installation skills required
Lowest
Highest
Safety precautions
Lowest
Highest
4.2.3.6
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
38
Fiber Optic Cabling
4.2.3.7 Activity - Fiber Optics Terminology
Do Activity 4.2.3.7 in class
4.2.3.5
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
39
Wireless Media
Properties of Wireless Media
Wireless does have
some areas of
concern including:
• Coverage area
• Interference
• Security
4.2.4.1
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
40
Wireless Media
Types of Wireless Media
•
•
•
•
IEEE 802.11 standards
Commonly referred to as Wi-Fi.
Uses CSMA/CA
Variations include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
802.11a: 54 Mbps, 5 GHz
802.11b: 11 Mbps, 2.4 GHz
802.11g: 54 Mbps, 2.4 GHz
802.11n: 600 Mbps, 2.4 and 5 GHz
802.11ac: 1 Gbps, 5 GHz
802.11ad: 7 Gbps, 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, and 60 GHz
• IEEE 802.15 standard
• Supports speeds up to 3 Mbps
• Provides device pairing over distances from 1 to
100 meters.
• IEEE 802.16 standard
• Provides speeds up to 1 Gbps
• Uses a point-to-multipoint topology to provide
wireless broadband access.
4.2.4.2
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
41
Wireless Media
Wireless LAN
Cisco Linksys EA6500 802.11ac wireless router
4.2.4.3
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
42
Wireless Media
802.11 Wi-Fi Standards
Standard
Maximum
Speed
Frequency
Backwards
compatible
802.11a
54 Mbps
5 GHz
No
802.11b
11 Mbps
2.4 GHz
No
802.11g
54 Mbps
2.4 GHz
802.11b
802.11n
600 Mbps
2.4 GHz or 5 GHz
802.11b/g
802.11ac
1.3 Gbps
(1300 Mbps)
2.4 GHz and 5.5
GHz
802.11b/g/n
802.11ad
7 Gbps
(7000 Mbps)
2.4 GHz, 5 GHz and
60 GHz
802.11b/g/n/ac
4.2.4.4
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
43
Wireless Media
4.2.4.5 Packet Tracer - Connecting a Wired and Wireless LAN
4.2.4.6 Lab - Viewing Wired and Wireless NIC Information
Do Packet Tracer
4.2.4.5
And
Lab 4.2.4.6
For a lab grade
4.2.4.5 - 4.2.4.6
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
44
Purpose of the Data Link Layer
The Data Link Layer
4.3.1.1
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
45
Purpose of the Data Link Layer
Data Link Sublayers
Network
LLC Sublayer
Data Link
802.15
Bluetooth
802.11
Wi-Fi
802.3
Ethernet
MAC Sublayer
The data link
layer is actually
divided into two
sublayers:
• Logical Link
Control (LLC)
• Media Access
Control (MAC)
Physical
4.3.1.2
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
46
Purpose of the Data Link Layer
Media Access Control
Do Animation on 4.3.1.3
4.3.1.3
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
47
Purpose of the Data Link Layer
Providing Access to Media
Do Animation on 4.3.1.4
4.3.1.4
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
48
Data Link Layer
Layer 2 Frame Structure
4.3.2.1
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
49
Layer 2 Frame Structure
Creating a Frame
4.3.2.2
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
50
Layer 2 Frame Structure
4.3.2.3 Activity - Generic Frame Fields
Do the Activities 4.3.2.3
on both buttons
in class
4.3.2.3
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
51
Data Link Layer
Layer 2 Standards
4.3.3.3
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
52
Layer 2 Standards
Data Link Layer Standards
Standard
organization
Networking Standards
IEEE
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
802.2: Logical Link Control (LLC)
802.3: Ethernet
802.4: Token bus
802.5: Token passing
802.11: Wireless LAN (WLAN) & Mesh (Wi-Fi certification)
802.15: Bluetooth
802.16: WiMax
ITU-T
•
•
•
•
G.992: ADSL
G.8100 - G.8199: MPLS over Transport aspects
Q.921: ISDN
Q.922: Frame Relay
ISO
•
•
HDLC (High Level Data Link Control)
ISO 9314: FDDI Media Access Control (MAC)
ANSI
•
X3T9.5 and X3T12: Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
4.3.3.1
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
53
Topologies
4.3.3.2 Activity - Data Link Layer Standards Organizations
Do the Activity 4.3.3.2
in class
4.3.3.2
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
54
Topologies
Controlling Access to the Media
4.4.1.1
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
55
Topologies
Physical and Logical Topologies
Do the Buttons on
4.4.1.2
in class
4.4.1.2
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
56
WAN Topologies
Common Physical WAN Topologies
4.4.2.1
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
57
WAN Topologies
Physical Point-to-Point Topology
4.4.2.2
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
58
WAN Topologies
Logical Point-to-Point Topology
Do the Buttons on
4.4.2.3
in class
4.4.2.3
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
59
WAN Topologies
Half and Full Duplex
4.4.2.4
Presentation_ID
Do the Buttons and
animations on 4.4.2.5
in class
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
60
LAN Topologies
Physical LAN Topologies
4.4.3.1
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
61
LAN Topologies
Logical Topology for Shared Media
Do the Buttons on
4.4.3.2 in class
4.4.3.2
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
62
LAN Topologies
Contention-Based Access
Characteristics
Contention-Based Technologies
•
•
•
•
•
Stations can transmit at any time
Collision exist
There are mechanisms to resolve
contention for the media
CSMA/CD for 802.3 Ethernet networks
CSMA/CA for 802.11 wireless networks
4.4.3.3
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
63
LAN Topologies
Multi-Access Topology
Do the Animation on
4.4.3.4 in class
4.4.3.4
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
64
LAN Topologies
Controlled Access
Characteristics
Controlled Access Technologies
•
•
•
•
•
•
4.4.3.5
Presentation_ID
Only one station can transmit at a time
Devices wishing to transmit must wait
their turn
No collisions
May use a token passing method
Token Ring (IEEE 802.5)
Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
Both are obsolete
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
65
LAN Topologies
Ring Topology
Do the Animation on
4.4.3.6 in class
4.4.3.6
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
66
LAN Topologies
4.4.3.7 Activity - Logical and Physical Topologies
Do the Activity on
4.4.3.7 in class
4.4.3.7
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
67
Data Link Frame
The Frame
Do the Buttons 4.4.4.1
in class
4.4.4.1
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
68
Data Link Frame
The Header
Click on parts of
4.4.4.2
in class
4.4.4.2
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
69
Data Link Frame
Layer 2 Address
4.4.4.3
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
70
Data Link Frame
The Trailer
Click on parts of
4.4.4.4
in class
4.4.4.4
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
71
Data Link Frame
LAN and WAN Frames
4.4.4.5
Presentation_ID
Do animation on
4.4.4.4
in class
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
72
Data Link Frame
Ethernet Frame
4.4.4.6
Presentation_ID
Minimum Frame
length:
64 or 72?
Depends on if you
count the Preamble
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
73
Data Link Frame
Point-to-Point Protocol Frame
4.4.4.7
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
74
Data Link Frame
802.11 Wireless Frame
4.4.4.8
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
75
Data Link Frame
4.4.4.9 Activity - Frame Fields
Do activities on all
buttons on 4.4.4.9
In class
4.4.4.9
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
76
Network Access
Summary
• Physical Layer Protocols
• Network Media
• Data Link Layer Protocols
• Media Access Control
4.5.1.1 – 4.5.1.2
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
77
Presentation_ID
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Confidential
78

similar documents