Studying Earth Science Chapter Two: The Science Toolbox • 2.1 Measurement • 2.2 Measuring Time and Temperature • 2.3 Systems and Variables • 2.4

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Studying Earth Science
Chapter Two: The Science Toolbox
• 2.1 Measurement
• 2.2 Measuring Time and Temperature
• 2.3 Systems and Variables
• 2.4 Graphs
2.3 Systems and variables
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Graphs are a type of mathematical model.
A graph is a picture that shows how two
variables are related.
2.4 Graphs
• A graph is a picture that
shows how two variables
are related.
• Graphs explain more than
just numbers alone, so
they are often used to
display data collected
during an experiment.
How far can you travel
on 10 gallons of gas?
2.4 Graphs
• Graphs are drawn with the independent
variable on the horizontal or x-axis.
• The dependent variable goes on the
vertical or y-axis.
• Types of graphs include line, bar, and pie
graphs.
2.4 Parts of a graph
• A graph is a picture of information.
• Science information is usually organized
in a table first.
2.4 How to make a line graph
Step 1: Decide which is
the dependent and
independent variable.
The dependent
variable goes on the yaxis and the
independent variable
goes on the x-axis.
2.4 How to make a line graph
Step 2: Make a scale for each axis by
counting boxes to fit your largest value.
Count by multiples of 1, 2, 5, or 10.
2.4 How to make a line graph
• One box equals 0.42 hour per box.
• Round 0.42 to 0.5.
• This means every two boxes equals 1
hour.
2.4 How to make a line graph
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•
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For the y-axis, the data range is $20
to $95.
To more easily calculate the scale,
choose $0 to $100 as the data range.
Round $8.3 to $10.
One box on the y-axis equals $10.
2.4 How to make a line graph
Step 3: Plot each point
by finding the x-value
and drawing a line
upward until you get
to the right y-value.
Draw a smooth curve
that shows the pattern
of the points.
2.4 How to make
a line graph
Step 4: Create a
title for the
graph
Geology Connection
Hydrogeologists and Their Tools
• A hydrogeologist is like a
detective and a doctor all
in one.
• These scientists are
responsible for supplying
and controlling
groundwater.
Activity
Measurement Olympics
• During the Measurement Olympics you and
a partner will practice measurement and
conversion skills.

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