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Christina Lloyd Mathematics Specialization Research Question: Will teaching a mathematics unit through music increase first graders’ understanding of that mathematical content over time? Music is mathematics o Music is comprised of mathematical relationships (Southgate and Roscigno, 2009) o Music naturally lends itself to incorporating and teaching mathematical concepts (Johnson & Edelson, 2003; Geist & Geist, 2008) Musical mnemonics o Help students memorize information (Scruggs & Mastropieri, 1990) o Works through rehearsal of material (Scruggs & Mastropieri, 1990) Setting: o Kindergarten/First grade multi-aged classroom in a Stafford County public school Participants: o Only first graders were assessed during this study o 9 first graders from my K/1 classroom (experimental group) o 7 first graders from a different K/1 classroom (control group) Duration: o Two week measurement unit o Tested after the unit, and again two and four weeks after the unit o Coins were taught and practiced throughout my student teaching experience Supplemental Musical Activities Music is mathematics o A mountain dulcimer was used to teach the mathematical concept of length Musical mnemonics o Recognition of coins and their value, a concept taught in mathematics, will be taught through a song Students were assessed one-on-one with the researcher Assessments took place after the measurement unit, and again two and four weeks after the unit ended Students were asked to: o List tools and strategies we can use to measure things o What measurement is (definition) o Identify coins o Identify values of coins o List how students learned about the coins Music is Mathematics o Students in the experimental group had a broader definition of measurement than the control group o Students in the experimental group also had more measurement strategies, on average, than the control group Average Number of Strategies Listed Assessment Data Collection Number Musical Mnemonic o Many students could already successfully identify the various coins and their values o Students who initially struggled with identifying coin names and values were very successful once they used the coin song Percentage Correct on Coin Identification and Value Assessment Control Group Experimental Group Assessment #1 Assessment #2 Assessment #3 Average 73.21 83.33 89.29 81.94 85.94 93.75 95.85 91.85 Music is a tool which can be used to broader understanding of underlying mathematical content Music as a memory tool can help struggling students master mathematical concepts which must be memorized I would use this in my own classroom to enhance mathematics activities, and to engage students Armistead, M. (2007). Kaleidoscope: How a creative arts enrichment program prepares children for kindergarten. Young Children, 62, 86-93. Geist, E. A., Geist, K. (2008). Using music to support emergent mathematics. Young Children, 63, 20-25. Johnson, G. L., Edelson, R. J. (2003). Integrating music and mathematics in the elementary classroom. Teaching Children Mathematics, 9, 474-479. Scruggs, T. E., Mastropieri, M. A. (1990). The case for mnemonic instruction: From laboratory research to classroom applications. The Journal of Special Education, 24, 7-29. Southgate, D. E., & Roscigno, V. J. (2009). The impact of music on childhood and adolescent achievement. Social Science Quarterly (Blackwell Publishing Limited), 90, 4-21. Questions?