GAMIFYING HEALTH DATA COLLECTION Mariko Wakabayashi & RJ Kunde Department of Computer Science University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Collaborators: Jason Cho, Tom Olson, Shravan Gupta, and Seungchul Lee MOTIVATION • Health data collection is dependent on a user’s motivation to participate • E.g. Health diary • Increasing number of tools which can assist in identification, correlation and eventual care for patients and their diseases • Growing opportunity for health professionals APPROACH • Aim for continuous user engagement • Gamification to maintain user’s participation, and collect health data from numerous sources • e.g. heart monitor sensor, accelerometer sensor Prototype: • Developed a gamified mobile application that collects physical activity and users’ health information • Focused on two types of health data • Data from smartphone’s accelerometer sensor • Data from users’ health question answers WHAT IS GAMIFICATION? Gamification: The application of game mechanics (e.g. competition, rewards) to a particular task or goal in order to create motivation among participants Location-based Social Network: Foursquare Education: Khan Academy Professional Network; LinkedIn’s Profile Completeness Circle EXAMPLES OF GAMIFICATION IN MEDICAL LITERATURE (1) Task 1: Educating the general public about healthy behavior Example: OrderUP! –players learn how to make healthier meal choices Field Study Conclusion Encouraged participants to live healthier lifestyles Participants engaged in four process of change identified by the Trans Theoretical Model EXAMPLES OF GAMIFICATION IN MEDICAL LITERATURE (2) Task 2: Health diary annotation completed by particular demographics • E.g. Pain Squad – mobile application that encourages young cancer patients to fill out pain reports. • Raised the compliance rate in annotating pain reports from 11% to over 80%. DR.POCKET – PROTOTYPE HEALTH MOBILE APPLICATION Goal: To accomplish Task 1 and 2 with our mobile application. Health Diary Annotation by adults Educate about healthy behavior and encourage a healthier lifestyle Dr. Pocket: Asks user’s anxiety related questions Tracks daily movement Integration of two types of health data to understand user’s anxiety levels DR.POCKET GAMIFICATION FRAMEWORK Answering Health Question Healthy Life-Style Points Engage in Physical Activity DR.POCKET – HEALTH RELATED QUESTIONS Modeled after the Institute of Medicine’s main determinants of health Compiled surveys and scales from Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and Ian McDowell’s Measuring Health - A Guide to Rating Scales and Questionnaires Dr. Pocket Focus on anxiety • One of the most common mental illness in the US • Prevalent amongst students Consists 102 questions from 6 different categories: stress, sleep, fatigue, anxiety, pain, and depression HEALTH QUESTION EXAMPLES DR.POCKET – TRACKING MOVEMENT Tracks movement with accelerometer and gyroscope Goal is to obtain enough data to study the integration between health questions with physical activity and train application for feedback Game elements added to step count • Progress Wheel (Competition) • Setting goal • Awarding Points for Participation (Rewards) DR.POCKET – STATISTICAL FEEDBACK Provided Information for the user: Daily and accumulated score • Calories Burned • Step counts • Distance Traveled • Questions Answered Game Elements encouraging Competition: Number of points obtained Tangible visuals to understand calculated numbers Acquired marketplace items and its duration PILOT STUDY Hypotheses Goal 1: Gamification in health data collection is effective Goal 2: Integration of passive and active data collection is more effective than either approach on its own. Procedure 15 subjects used prototype application for 2 weeks Subjects description: 18-25 age group, 5 females/10 males, students Results Collected 1,380 responses and over 747,000 step counts. Participants enjoyed and vouch for gamification “The concept of earning "points" for walking more or answering more questions is really what motivated me.” “The application showed me how much lower than the target I was at on a daily basis so it prompted me to walk more.,” CONCLUSION - FUTURE WORK Future Work: Improve user interface Expand on current features Increase of questions from 100 to 500 Implement adaptive questions Add network functionality to increase competition Conduct Larger Study 200 person, IRB sanctioned human study Monitor user engagement, and train application to detect anxiety levels Develop a feedback system based on results QUESTIONS?