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Report
Economy Development and
TVET in Korea
Technical Vocational Education & Training(TVET)
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1. HRD KOREA
 Established in 1982
 A Specialized HRD Organization under MOEL
 Employees : 1,177
 Organization : 1headquarter,
13Bureaus, 39Teams
15 overseas EPS Centers
 Budgets : US $ 1 billion
 Main Mission
- National Competency Standard(NCS)
- Korean Dual System
- National Qualification Testing
- Lifelong Competency Development
- Employment Permit System(EPS)
2
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2. Global Institute For Transferring Skills
GIFTS
 Established in March, 2013 to the HRD Korea
 Main Roles
- Skills Promotion
- Transferring Advanced Skills
Providing
information
- Skills Competitions/ Domestic / International
- International Cooperation
- World skills Korea
 Current Issues
- Knowledge sharing project with WB
- UNESCO BEAR project
- GIZ / ILO project, ASEAN+3 Senminar
-APEC Instructors(TOT)
- Projects with Libya, Tanzania, Cameroon, Uganda,
Nicaragua etc.
3. Glance of GIFTS
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2.Outcome of Economic Development(Export)
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3.Aligning HRD with Labor Demand
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Efficient supply of industrial workforce based on labor demand
State-led Industrialization
1961~1973
1973~1980
1980~1987
Democratization
1987~1997
Globalization
1997~present
• Industrial
• Light
Economy
Industrialization
• Export
Promotion
Policy initiated
• Heavy
&
Chemical
Industrialization
• Economic
Liberalization
• Economic
Stabilization
• Economic
Slowdown
Restructuring after
Economic Crisis
• IT-centered
Industrial
Upgrading
• Globalization
• Statist
Educational
System
Education
&
• Expansion of
HRD
Primary
Education
of
Middle school
Education
• Expansion
Vocational
Training
of
Reform • Educational
Globalization
of Statist
Educational System • Graduate School
Education (BK21)
• Autonomy &
Diversity
• National HRD
• Educational
• Expansion
• Expansion
College
Education
of
• Universalization
of
College Education
• University-Industry
Partnership
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Outline of Evolution of TVET System
1970s
1960s
The 1st and 2nd
79
1990s
1980s
The 3rd and 4th
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5th 6th Eco. +
Social Dev.
1,645
5yr Plan for
New Economy
6,147
10,841
2000s
5 yr Plan
Contd’
24,044
Manpower Demand
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9000
8000
Grd.Sch
7000
Scientist
6000
5000
Univ.
4000
3000
Engineer
2000
Technologist
1000
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Polytechnic
7
8
9
Technician
10
Tech.H-Sch
Skilled Worker
TVET Policy
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1 Beginning in the 1970s
• Government lead Technical Vocational Training
• Compulsory TVET (’76): large companies were asked by Gov’t
to supply mono-skilled workforce  Skill Craftsman
• According to Economic 5 yr plan many craftsman required
•
•
•
•
The government founded public training institutions to train
workers, while laying the obligation on employers to train and
educate their employees. These initiates gave a strong
backing to the fast growth of the national economy.
TVET Policy
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2 Growth in the 1980s
• Focus in training shifted from mono-skilled to multi-skilled and
multi-functional workforce
• Increased support for training facilities, and others at workplace
• With the changes in the economic and industrial structure since
1980, different needs for vocational training had been brought
about.
• As the industrial structure shifted from labor-intensive to
technology intensive one and from mass production to mass
consumption, there was a growing demand for multi functional
and high skilled workers.
1982 Established Korea Manpower Agency
Now renamed HRD Service of Korea
TVET Policy
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3 Transition in the 1990s
• Compulsory Vocational Training → EI Training (’95)
• Compulsory training/ training levies
→ EI contributions/training subsidies
• Production workers in manufacturing
→ All workers in all industries
• Large-scale training for the unemployed during the financial crisis
 In response to the chaining trends in the industrial structure, such
as strong showing of the service sector, the government brought in
employment insurance system. Also the government program in the
EI to extend the support coverage to training to all industrial sectors
and workers.
TVET Policy
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Innovation in the 2000s
• Closer business-school links to produce professional workforce
• Life-long skills development system
• Special supports to disadvantaged workers
(SMEs, non-regular, disabled, woman …etc.)
TVET should be conducted in a network type system based on part
nership under Human Resource Development(HRD) is tailored to
the local reality and decentralized approach can contribute to a
balanced growth among different regions.
 2006 Korea Polytechnics System Launching
Contents of TVET
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Skills Development Opportunities for Unemployed and
Low education
1) Training for the unemployed
- Training for the unemployed with work experience
- Training for the unemployed without work experience
2) Employment promotion training
- Training for the local unemployed
3) Basic training for workforce
- Training for priority sectors
- Training to foster technicians
4) Vocational training for the disadvantaged
- Persons with Needs for Rehabilitation
- Disadvantaged Self-Employed Person
Contents of TVET
Promoting Skills development in Companies
1) Employee Training
- Basic training for to-be employees and upgrade training for
incumbent employees
- Subsidy for employees training on paid leave
- Subsidy for employees enrollment in training course
- Loan for skills development expenses
2) Vocational Training for SMEs
- Consortium for vocational training at SME
- Subsidy for organized study at SMEs
(‘Learning Organization’)
- Subsidy for better performance in SME core work
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Success factors
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1) Successful strategy policy of TVET and strong enforcement by
the government.
2) Efficiency management of international loan(IBRD) for TVET
The Korea government established several vocational training
institutes to exploit IBRD loan
* Intercontinental Bank for Reconstruction and Development(IBRD) = World Bank.
3) Establishment of special training center for vocational training
instructors
According to economic development, Korea government tried to
expand number of VTIs’ very rapidly. Qualified vocational
training instructors are dispatched to every VTI as an excellent
instructor.
4) To provide long term overseas training programs for instructors
Korea government had dispatched couple of hundreds
instructors to Germany and advanced country more than one
year. Most of well trained instructors had to work at VTIs’
without evadable chance. Training costs are covered by Korea
and Germany government by scholarship programs.
Thank You
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