PPT

Report
GenChem/Organic Chemistry Laboratory
Department Office
Room
303 Planetary Hall
MSN
3E2
Phone
703-993-1070
FAX
703-993-1055
Dr. James C. Schornick
Office
Room 355 Planetary Hall
Mailbox
Room 303 Planetary Hall
Phone
703-993-1091
E-Mail
[email protected]
Classes (Fall 2014)
M
– Chem 318
8:30 pm – 12:20 pm
T
– Chem 315
8:30 pm –
T
12:20 pm
– Chem 211
4:30 pm –
7:10 pm
Organic Lab II Sec 201
Rm 409
Planetary Hall
Organic Lab I Sec 204
Rm 407
Planetary Hall
GenChem Lec Sec 004
Rm 290
Bull Run Hall (PWC)
Office Hours
W, R, F
9:00 am – 11:00 am
Rm 355 Planetary Hall
Course Texts
Slayden, Stalick, Roth: Organic Chemistry Laboratory Manual
Pavia D., Lampman G., Kriz G., Engel, R., Introduction to Organic
Laboratory Techniques, A Small Scale Approach, 2nd ed.,
Silberberg, Chemistry, Molecular Nature of Matter and Change
Web Sites
Slayden
http://classweb.gmu.edu/chemlab
Schornick
http://mason.gmu.edu/~jschorni
Chem Dept
http://chemistry.gmu.edu/
Chemistry 315 - Organic I Laboratory
Syllabus – Fall 2013
Week of
Experiment
Slayden & Stalick, 2010; Pavia, et al (2nd Ed), 2010
Introduction, Safety, Checkin
Slayden pp. 1-20; Pavia pp 546 - 562
Physical Properties
Melting Point, Refractive
Index
Slayden
pp. 17-22
Pavia Tech: 1, 2, 3.9; 24, 9 (9.1-9.5, 9.7-9.9)
Recrystallization
Vacuum Filtration
Slayden
pp. 29-32
Pavia Tech: 6 (6.2, 6.5, 6.6, 6.9) , 11 (11.1-11.3 A, C, D,
11.5, 11.6, 11.8-11.10)
Lecture
IR, MS, UV Spectroscopy
Problem Set
Slayden
Solomons
Pavia Tech:
Schornick:
Simple Distillation,
Solubility, Density, Ref Index
IR Spectroscopy Unknown
Pavia Tech: 3 (3.3-3.8); 13.1; 14 (14.1-14.3)
25 (25.1, 25.2, 25.4, 25.7)
Oct 1-7
(T – M)
Extraction of Caffeine
Slayden pp. 45-47
Pavia:
pp. 85-89
Oct 8-15
(T – T)
Gas Chromatography:
Acetates
Slayden
pp. 49-52
Pavia Tech: 22 (22.1-22.7, 22.9, 22,10, 22.12)
Oct 16-22
(W – T)
Distillation of a Mixture:
Simple / Fractional
Distillation
Slayden
pp. 53-57
Pavia Tech: 15.1-15.6
Oct 23-29
(W – T)
Gas Chromatography:
Distillates
Slayden
pp. 59-60
Pavia Tech: 22 (22.8, 22.11, 22.13, 22.14)
Synthesis: t-Butyl Chloride
Slayden
pp. 61-63
Pavia Tech: 12 (12.1-12-4, 12.8-12.10)
Pavia Exp: 21 (pp. 172-174)
Synthesis of Cyclohexene
Solomans & Frye pp 297-302
Pavia:
pp. 179-183
Slayden:
pp. 65-67
Qualitative Organic Analysis:
Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes,
Aromatics, Halides, Alcohols
Slayden
pp. 69-73
Pavia Exp: 55 (pp. 446-461, 464-468, 483-487)
Aug 26 - 30
Sept 3-9
(T –M)
Sept 10-16
(T – M)
Sept 17-23
(T – M)
Sept 24 – Sept 30
(T – M)
Oct 30 – Nov 5
(W – T)
Nov 6 – 12
(W – T)
Nov 13 - 19
(W – T)
Nov 20– 26
(M – F)
Dec 2 – 6
(M – F)
Qualitative Organic (con’t)
Final Exam; Check out
pp. 33-44
2.15-2.16, 9.13-9.17, 13.9
25 (25.9-25.14); 28
classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni/chem315lab
Chemistry 315 - Organic I Laboratory
Syllabus - Spring 2014
Date
Experiment
Slayden & Stalick, 2005; Pavia, et al (2nd Ed), 2005
Introduction, Safety, Check-in
Slayden pp. 1-20; Pavia pp 546-571 Tech 1, 2 & 3
Physical Properties
Melting Point
Refractive Index
Slayden: pp. 19-22
Pavia Tech: 9 (9.1-9.5, 9.7-9.9); 24
Recrystallization
Vacuum Filtration
Slayden: pp. 29-32
Pavia Tech: (6.2, 6.5, 6.6 6.9);
(11.1-11.3,A,C,D, 11.5, 11.6, 11.8-11.10)
Lecture - IR, MS, UV Spectroscopy
Spectroscopy Unknown
Simple Distillation
Slayden: pp. 33-44
Pavia Tech: (25.9-25.14); 28
Solomaon’s: (Sec 2.15-2.16, 9.13-9.17; 13.9)
Website: http:classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni/chem315
Feb 19,24
Simple Distillation (Boiling Point)
Spectroscopy Unknown
Pavia: Tech 3.3-3.8; 13.1; 14.1-14.3;
25.1, 25.2, 25.4, 25.7
Feb 26. Mar 3
Isolation of Caffeine from Vivarin
Tablets
Pavia: Exp: pp. 77-84
Gas Chromatography: Acetates
Slayden: pp. 45-48
Pavia Tech 22.1-22.7, 22.9-22.10, 22.12
Spring Break
No Lab
Simple and fractional Distillation
Slayden: pp. 49-53
Pavia Tech 15.1-15.6
Jan 22, 27
Jan 29, Feb 3
Feb 5, 10
Feb 12, 17
Mar 5, 10
Mar 11-17
Mar 19, 24
pp. 719-748
Gas Chromatography: Distillates
Slayden: pp. 55-56
Pavia: Tech 22.8, 22.11, 22.13, 22.14
Synthesis: t-Butyl Chloride
Slayden: pp. 57-59-50
Pavia: Tech 12.1-12.4, 12.8-12.10
Synthesis of Cyclohexene
Slayden: 61-62
Pavia: pp. 179-183
Apr 16, 21
Qualitative Organic Analysis:
(Hydrocarbons, Halides,
Alcohols)
Slayden: pp. 65-69
Pavia: pp. 446-461, 464-468, 483-487
Apr 23, 28
Qual Organic (con’t)
Mar 26, 31
Apr 2, 7
Apr 9, 14
Apr 30, May 5
Lab Check-out and Final Exam
Chemistry 318 - Organic II Laboratory
Syllabus – Spring 2014
Date
Experiment
Slayden & Stalick, 2005; Pavia, et al (2nd Ed), 2005
Jan 27
Check-in, NMR Video
Feb 3
Lecture:
1. Review - IR, UV, Mass Spec
2. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Spectroscopy (NMR)
Slayden - p. 35-38
Solomons - pp. 385-396, 399-410, 412-414, 417-422
Pavia
- p. Techniques 26, 27 ; pp. 886-940
Schornick - http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni/chem318
Feb 10
Bromination of Toluene
(Ortho, Para Substitution)
Slayden - p. 61 – 65
Schornick - http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni/chem318
Feb 17
Nitration of Methyl Benzoate
Meta Substitution
Slayden - p. 67 – 69
Pavia
- pp. 338-340, 671, 643
Schornick - http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni/chem318
Feb 24
Friedel-Crafts synthesis of
4,4’-de-tert-Butylbiphenyl
Slayden
Mar 3
NMR – NMR Spectroscopy
Identification of Unknown
Slayden - p. 59 – 60
Pavia
- p. 909 – 964
Schornick - http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni/chem318
Mar 12
Spring Break - No Lab
Mar 17
NMR Unknown (cont’d)
NMR instructions (Honeychuck)
Mar 24
Synthesis of Grignard Reagent
Pavia
- p. 278 – 288
Schornick - http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni/chem318
Mar 31
Synthesis of Benzoic Acid
(Continuation of Grignard Exp)
Pavia
- p. 278-288
Schornick - http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni/chem318
April 7
Qualitative Organic Analyses
(Aldehydes & Ketones)
Slayden - p. 73 – 76
Pavia
- p. 470 – 474
Schornick - http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni/chem318
April 14
Synthesis of Isopentyl Acetate
(Banana Oil)
Pavia
- pp. 84-91, 686-688, 693-697
Schornick -http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni/chem318
Apr 21
Synthesis of Dibenalacetone
Slayden
Apr 28
Synthesis of biodiesel from
vegetable oil
Slayden - p. 77
Pavia
- p. 207 – 216
Schornick - http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni/chem318
May 5
Final Exam & Lab Checkout
- p. 91-92
- p. 103-104
Chemistry 318 - Organic II Laboratory
Syllabus – Fall 2013
Date
Aug 26-30
Sept 3-9
Experiment
Slayden & Stalick, 2005; Pavia, et al (2nd Ed), 2005
Check-in, NMR Video
Lecture:
1. Review - IR, UV, Mass Spec
2. Nuclear Magnetic
Resonance
Spectroscopy (NMR)
Slayden - p. 35-38
Solomons - pp. 385-396, 399-410, 412-414, 417-422
Pavia
- p. Techniques 26, 27 ; pp. 886-940
Schornick - http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni/chem318
Sept 10-16
Bromination of Toluene
(Ortho, Para Substitution)
Slayden - p. 61 – 65
Schornick - http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni/chem318
Sept 17-23
Nitration of Methyl Benzoate
Meta Substitution
Slayden - p. 67 – 69
Pavia
- pp. 338-340, 671, 643
Schornick - http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni/chem318
Sept 24-30
Friedel-Crafts synthesis of
4,4’-de-tert-Butylbiphenyl
Slayden
Oct 1-7
NMR – NMR Spectroscopy
Identification of Unknown
Slayden - p. 59 – 60
Pavia
- p. 909 – 964
Schornick - http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni/chem318
Oct 8-15
NMR Unknown (cont’d)
NMR instructions (Honeychuck)
Mar 12
Spring Break - No Lab
- p. 91-92
Oct 16-22
Synthesis of Grignard Reagent
Pavia
- p. 278 – 288
Schornick - http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni/chem318
Oct 23-29
Synthesis of Benzoic Acid
(Continuation of Grignard Exp)
Pavia
- p. 278-288
Schornick - http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni/chem318
Oct 30-Nov 5
Qualitative Organic Analyses
(Aldehydes & Ketones)
Slayden - p. 73 – 76
Pavia
- p. 470 – 474
Schornick - http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni/chem318
Nov 6 - 12
Synthesis of Isopentyl Acetate
(Banana Oil)
Pavia
- pp. 84-91, 686-688, 693-697
Schornick -http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni/chem318
Nove 13 19
Synthesis of Dibenalacetone
Slayden
Nov 20 - 26
Synthesis of biodiesel from
vegetable oil
Slayden - p. 77
Pavia
- p. 207 – 216
Schornick - http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni/chem318
Dec 2-6
Final Exam & Lab Checkout
- p. 103-104
Chemistry 315 - Organic I Laboratory
Syllabus – Summer 2011Session A
Date
Experiment
Slayden & Stalick, 2005; Pavia, et al (2nd Ed), 2005
May 17
Introduction, Safety, Check-in
Slayden pp. 1-12; Pavia pp 2-5; Tech 1, 2 & 3.9
May 18
Physical Properties
Melting Point
Refractive Index
Density
Slayden
Pavia Tech 9.1-9.5
Pavia Tech 9.7-9.9
Pavia Tech 13
Pavia Tech 24
pp. 19-21
pp. 659-663
pp. 664-669
pp. 731-733
pp. 867-872
May 19
Recrystallization
Slayden
Pavia Tech 11
Pavia Tech 6.2-6.3
Pavia Tech 8
pp. 23-25
pp. 679-684, 687-688, 694
pp. 614-615
pp. 645-653
Filtration
May 24
IR, MS, UV Spectroscopy Lecture
Web Site
Pavia Tech 25
Solomon’s
http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni
pp. 873-876, 882, 888-908
Sec 2.16, 9.12-9.17. 13.9
May 25
Spectroscopy Lecture (Con’t)
Simple Distillation of Unknown
Refractive Index of Unknown
Infrared Spectrum of Unknown
Slayden
Pavia Tech 14
pp. 27-37
pp. 733-740
May 26
Gas Chromatography: Acetates
Slayden
pp. 45-47
May 31
Distillation of a Mixture:
Simple Distillation
Fractional Distillation
Slayden
Pavia Tech 3.1-3.8
Pavia Tech 6.1-6.3
Pavia Tech 15.1-15.6
pp. 41-44
pp. 583-591
pp. 612-615
pp. 744-755
June 1
Gas Chromatography of
Distillate Mixtures
Slayden
pp. 39
Pavia Tech 22.1-22.13 pp. 837-855
June 2
Synthesis: t-Butyl Chloride
Slayden
Pavia Exp 23
Pavia Tech 12.1-12.4
Pavia Tech 12.8-12.10
pp. 49-50
pp. 187-188
pp. 698-706
pp. 712-717
June 7
Qualitative Organic Analysis:
Solubility (H2O & H2SO4)
Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes,
Aromatics, Alkyl & Aryl
Halides, Alcohols
Slayden
Pavia Exp 55
pp. 51-55
pp. 468-479; 480-482; 486-491;
507-511
June 8
Qual Org Analysis (Con’t)
June 9
Final Exam; Check out
Chemistry 318 - Organic II Laboratory
Syllabus – Summer 2014 Session C
Date
Experiment
Slayden & Stalick, 2005; Pavia, et al
– pp. 1 – 20
– Tech 1 , 2, 3
July 1
Check-in, Safety Video, NMR Video
Slayden
Pavia
July 2
Lecture: Review IR, UV, Mass Spec
Lecture: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Spectroscopy (NMR)
Slayden
July 8
Bromination of Toluene
(Ortho/Para Substitution on Benzene
Ring)
Slayden - pp. 35 – 44, 79-88
Pavia
- pp. 851 – 854, 830 - 831
Schornick - http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni/chem318
July 9
Nitration of Methyl Benzoate
(Meta Substitution on Benzene Ring)
Slayden - pp. 89 – 92
Pavia
- pp. 338 – 340,643, 665 – 671
Schornick - http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni/chem318
July 10
NMR – Identification of Unknown
(Simple Distillation; Phys Char;
Solubililty; Density; Ref Index,
NMR; IR
Slayden - pp. 97 – 98
Pavia
- pp. 719 – 729, 851 – 840
Schornick - http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni/chem318
July 15
Unknown Identification (con’t)
July 16
Synthesis of Grignard Reagent
Slayden – pp. 99 – 102
Pavia
– pp. 278 – 281, 286 – 288
Schornick -http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni/chem318
July 17
Synthesis of Benzoic Acid
(Continuation of Grignard Exp)
Slayden
Pavia
July 22
Qualitative Organic Analyses
(Aldehydes & Ketones)
Slayden
– pp. 103 – 105
Pavia
– pp. 446 – 458, 468 – 474
Schornick: http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni/chem318
July 23
Synthesis of Dibenzalacetone
(Claisen – Schmidt Aldol
Condensation)
Slayden
- pp. 111 – 112
Pavia
- pp. 491 – 496
Schornick - http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni/chem318
July 27
Synthesis of Isopentyl Acetate
(Banana Oil)
Pavia
– pp. 84-91,686 – 688, 693 – 697
Schornick - http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni/chem318
July 28
Synthesis of Biodiesel
From Vegetable Oil
Slayden
Pavia
Aug 2
lab Checkout; Final Exam
- pp. 77
Solomons - pp. 386 – 417
Pavia
- Tech 26, 27
Schornick - http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni/chem318
– pp. 99 – 102
– pp. 686 – 688, 693 – 694, 700 – 702
– pp. 107-109
– pp. 211 - 216
Organic Chemistry Laboratory (I & ll)
Objective
The purpose of the Organic Chemistry laboratory courses is to
introduce the student to basic techniques used in the lab to identify
and synthesize organic compounds.
Experiments
Chem 315
Chem 318
Melting Point
O/P Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution
Bromination of Toluene
Refractive Index
Meta Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution
Nitration of Methyl Benzoate
IR Spectroscopy Unknown
Freidel Crafts Alkylation
Alkylvation of Biphenyl
IR/NMR Spectroscopy Unknown
Simple & Fractional
Distillation
Synhesis
Grignard / Benzoic Acid
Gas Chromatography
Of Acetates
Fischer Condensation Synthesis
Isopentyl Acetate
Gas Chromatography
Of Distillates
(Mixed Aldo Condensation) Synthesis
Dibenzalacetone
Synthesis
T-Butyl Chloride
(Sn1 Nucleophilic Substitution)
Synthesis
Biodiesel from Vegetable Oil
Qualitative Analysis
(Alkanes, Halides, Alcohols)
(Unknown Identification)
Qualitative Analysis
(Aldehydes & Ketones)
(Unknown Identification)
Techniques
Mass Spectrometry
Melting Point
Fractional Distillation
Ultraviolet/Vis Spectroscopy
(UV)
Refractive Index
Partial Elemental
Analysis
Infrared Spectroscopy (IR)
Simple Distillation
Limiting Reagent
Nuclear Magnetic
Resonance (NMR)
Recrystallization
Gas Chromatography
Vacuum Filtration
Chemistry Laboratory
Class Elements:
 Experiments (10)
 Typed, Formal Laboratory Reports
 Quizzes
 Problem Set
 Final Exam
 Safety procedures
 Strictly Enforced
 Goggles
 Lab Coats
 Gloves - Latex
Non-latex (Nitrile) alternatives
available
 Suggest old jeans & shirts (chemical spills
& stains inevitable
 No Shorts, Flipflops, or Open-Toed shoes
 Safety Related Conduct
Chemistry Laboratory
Honor Code
 GMU operates under a strict Honor Code
policy
 Honor Code violations will be addressed by
the instructor, the Department Chair, or the
GMU Office of Academic Integrity, depending
on the severity of the offense
 The following policies will be strictly enforced
in Organic Laboratory.
 Quizzes and Final Exams given in the
laboratory will be closed book.
Instructor will hand out any additional
resources required
 Lab Reports & Spectroscopy Problem Set
 Lab Reports and the Problem Set are
considered take home exams
 Students may discuss freely among
themselves course subject matter from
the lab texts, instructors lectures, and
instructor’s website notes, but not in
the context of specifics regarding lab
report preparation or solutions to
problem set questions
 All students are encouraged to seek
help from the instructor, regarding
details of report preparation or
solutions to problems
Chemistry Laboratory
Honor Code (con’t)
 Students are encouraged to report suspected
violations of the Honor Code to the instructor
 Suspected violations should be reported
orally and in writing to the instructor
 Students reporting violations should be
prepared to participate in a Honor Code
Hearing, if applicable
 Students, who are reluctant to report
violations should consider the harm done to
themselves and other students by students
who cheat, which has a diminishing effect
on grade value
Chemistry Laboratory
Class Elements (Con’t):
 Missed labs
 There are very limited provisions for missed lab
sessions, especially in the summer sessions.
 Laboratory setup logistics severely limit
provisions for making up missed lab sessions.
 Students can sometimes make up a lab during the
same week of a given experiment (except in
summer sessions).
 It is the student’s responsibility to anticipate and
make provisions for missed labs.
 Missed laboratory sessions will receive a grade of
zero for the report unless arrangements are made
with the instructor for making up the lab work.
 Missed Lab Reports
 Laboratory reports not handed in will receive a
grade of “0.”
 Late Lab Reports
 Laboratory reports are due the week following the
experiment.
 One Week Late
– 10 points deduction
 Two Weeks Late
– 25 points deduction
 Three Weeks Late – Grade of “0”
Chemistry Laboratory
Laboratory Process
1. Quizzes - Quizzes are given at the beginning of
lab and last about 20 – 25 minutes.
2. Lab Lecture - (30-45 min))
a. Introduction to the next experiment
b. Review
i.
Student Questions
ii.
Instructor Subjects
c. Detailed instructions for the Experiment
3. Pre-Lab Reports
a. Pre-lab reports containing Purpose, Approach,
References, Procedure Descriptions, and
proposed Data Presentation Templates are
prepared using a supplied template. The prelab is due at the beginning of lab and will be
checked by instructor during the Quiz.
4. Final Lab Report – The pre-lab reports are completed
with experimental data, a data summary, and an
analysis of the experimental results.
5. The final lab report is submitted the week following
the experimental work
6. The Lab Report is prepared according to the detailed
guide lines described in this document utilizing a
Microsoft Word lab report template obtained from the
web site - http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni
Chemistry Laboratory
Grades:
1. Reports, quizzes, exams, and the problem set are
graded on basis of 100 points.
2. Instructor defines curve for assigning letter grades.
3. Missed assignments will receive a grade of “0”, if not
submitted within 3 weeks of lab.
4. Quizzes / Problem Set (20% of Grade)
a. Quizzes will cover the background and theory of
the experiment performed the previous week,
reaction equations, procedural details, applicable
computations.
b. Any quiz may have an additional question on
Spectroscopy.
c. Problem Set (Counts as two (2) quizzes)
5. Lab Reports (60% of Grade)
The grade for each experiment is based on the
laboratory report:
 Technical content
 Procedure Descriptions
 Results & Observations
 Analysis of Results, Conclusions
 Completeness
 Organization / logical structure
 Presentation / Neatness
7. Final Exam (20% of Grade)
Chemistry Laboratory
The Laboratory Report:
1. The laboratory report plays the most important role
in the presentation of the Organic Lab Course.
2. The primary focus of the Organic Lab Course is to
enhance the learning of laboratory techniques and
evaluation of experimental results through a
comprehensive laboratory report process.
3. The report process requires pre-lab planning,
focused lab work, and a conscientious effort to
effectively communicate the lab results to others in
a clear, concise, grammatically and technically
correct manner.
4. Continued improvement in neatness, technical
content, organization, and readability dictate the
grading process as the semester proceeds.
5. Final reports, including any charts and spectra for a
given experiment, will be submitted not later than
Friday of the week following the completion of the
experimental data collection.
6. In some cases, final data collection, e.g., melting
points, etc., is done at the beginning of the next
experimental lab session, in which case the report
will be due the following week.
Chemistry Laboratory
The Laboratory Report (Con’t):
7. During summer sessions there are three (3) lab
sessions per week. The lab reports for a summer
session week are due no later than Friday of the
week following the experiments of the previous
week.
8. The Lab Report is graded on the basis of:
 Detailed adherence to the lab report template
 logical Organization
 Completeness
 Brevity
 Scientific Knowledge & Correctness
 Computational Accuracy
 Neatness
 Readability
9. Pre-lab Preparation – The student uses a Microsoft
Word report template (downloaded from the
Instructor’s Website) to prepare a “Pre-lab Report”,
which is checked at the beginning of the lab
session.
10. The “Pre-lab” report then evolves to the “Final
Report” to reflect adjustments to the pre-lab
procedure descriptions, inclusion and summary of
the experimental results, and the analysis of the
results leading to applicable conclusions.
Chemistry Laboratory
The Laboratory Report (Con’t):
11. Results must be organized logically in the lab
report using a student designed data template for
each procedure within the report. Note: Each lab
report consists of one or more “Procedures” (see
slide 26)
Results must be organized and presented in a
logical manner, using tables where appropriate
Algorithms, including variables, must be
defined
The computation of each result must be
presented including the data substitution for
each variable
12. The “Results Summary” section, following the
last experimental procedure, is a paragraph
summarizing all of the results obtained in the
experiment. Ex: the mass of the methyl benzoate
reagent was 3.146 g.
13. The “Analysis & Conclusions” section, following
the “Results Summary,” is a logical development
of a set of arguments, utilizing selected results
from the experiment, to support any conclusions
arrived at as a result of the experimental process.
14. Emphasis is placed on correct grammar and
brevity. Use as few words as possible, but use
complete, grammatically correct, sentences.
Do not use “First Person”, i.e., I, me, my, our, etc.
Chemistry Laboratory
The Pre-lab Report
The Pre-Lab is a template for the final report. It is
created utilizing a Microsoft Word template downloaded from the Instructors Website:
http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni/
Click on: orglabreporttemplate.doc
The Pre-lab contains all the elements of the final report
except the experimental data, i.e., the results, final
computations, summary, analysis, conclusions.
The pre-lab report will be checked by the instructor
during the lab session. The components of the pre-lab
consist of the following:
Note: All information in the Pre-Lab Report is assumed
known to the student prior to the lab session from
the laboratory text resources and the Web Site
notes provided by the Instructor.
 Name, Date, Course & Section No., Drawer No.,
Partner(s), if any, entered into the Header Page of
the report
 Title of Experiment
 Purpose
 Approach – Sequential list of the procedures to be
used to conduct the experiment)
 References – Formal citation format for both text
resources & compound resources.
Chemistry Laboratory
Pre-lab Report – Principal Components
Pre-Lab Report Components (Con’t)
 Procedures:
 Start each procedure on a new page
 Materials & Equipment (2 Columns)
 Procedure Description
 Equation Setup
 Templates for presentation of results (observed
or computed, utilizing tables when appropriate)
Chemistry Laboratory
Final Report
(The Pre-Lab report is completed)
1.
Name (Must be on all pages of report)
2.
Title
3.
Purpose
4.
Approach
5.
References
6.
Procedure #1 – Procedure Name (New Page)
7.
(Must be on all pages of report)
a.
Materials & Apparatus (2 Columns)
b.
Procedure Description, Equation Setup
c.
Populated Data Templates & Tables
d.
Final Calculations
Procedure #2 – Procedure Name (New Page)
a.
Materials & Apparatus (2 Columns)
b.
Procedure Description, Equation Setup
c.
Populated Data Templates & Tables
d.
Final Calculations
8.
Procedure #…….
9.
Summary Table of Results (optional)
10. Summary paragraph of Results (New Page)
11. Analysis/Conclusions – Logically derived
supporting statements to justify conclusions
made as to the significance of the experimental
results.
Chemistry Laboratory
Report Elements
1. Name, Date, Drawer, Experiment No., Partners, etc.
on each Header page of the report
Note: Instructions for entering information into the
Header fields are given in the report template.
1. Title: Short statement about the experiment, e.g.,
Nitration of Methyl Benzoate.
2. Purpose:
Short, concise statement of what the experiment
will accomplish.
The statement should include:
 The principle reaction involved
 A new technique being introduced
 The principal instrument(s) that will be used.
Ex: The purpose of this experiment is to
synthesize a carboxylic acid utilizing an
oxidation/reduction reaction between
Chromic Acid and an Aldehyde.
Ex: The purpose of this experiment is to
synthesize the analgesic Aspirin
(Acetylsalicylic Acid) in an Esterification
reaction between Acetic Anhydride and
Salicylic Acid.
Ex. The purpose of this experiment is to identify
an organic compound using Boiling Point,
Refractive Index, and Infrared Spectroscopy
Organic Chemistry Laboratory (I & ll)
Report Elements (Con’t):
4. Approach:
The Approach is a logical order listing, in paragraph
form, of the procedures, including major steps
within a procedure, that you will use to conduct the
experiment.
The task here is to determine what constitutes a
procedure.
A procedure is a logical group of steps to
produce a particular result
An element in the Approach would be a simple
descriptive statement of the procedure to be used.
ex. Determine the Mass of Benzoic Acid by
Weighing.
ex. Separate crude product from reaction solution
by vacuum filtration.
Note: Care must be taken not to include procedural
details.
Note: Calculations are considered to be procedures,
and thus, would be elements in the Approach.
ex. Adjust the Refractive Index value to the
standard temperature value of 20oC.
Chemistry Laboratory
Report Elements (Con’t)
4. Approach (Con’t):
Example:
Determine the Mass of the Ethanol from its volume
and density. Compute the Moles of the Reagents.
Setup the Stoichiometric Balanced reaction equation.
Determine the Molar Ratios. Determine the Limiting
Reagent. Compute the Theoretical Yield. Extract
(wash) the product with Distilled Water followed by
5% Sodium Bicarbonate. Dry the product with
Anhydrous Sodium Sulfate. Determine the yield.
Compute the % yield of the product. Determine the
Refractive Index corrected for room temperature.
Obtain an IR Spectra.
Example:
Determine the Mass of Formic Acid by weighing.
Determine the Mass of Isobutyl Alcohol from its
volume and density. Compute the Moles of the two
reagents. Setup the Stoichiometric equation.
Determine the Molar ratios. Determine the Limiting
Reagent. Calculate the Theoretical Yield. Mix the
reagents together with the Sulfuric Acid catalyst.
Wash/Extract the organic layer with Sodium
Bicarbonate. Separate the Organic layer from the
Aqueous layer in a separatory funnel. Dry the
product with Anhydrous Sodium Sulfate. Purify and
determine the Boiling Point of the product using
Simple Distillation. Determine the Mass of the
purified product. Compute the Percent Yield of the
product. Determine the Melting Point of the product.
Chemistry Laboratory
Report Elements (Con't)
5. Reference Citations – Text
A formal citation of the principal resources used to
provide background information and procedural
details for the experiment.
The following texts are normally cited in each
Organic Lab report:
Slayden, S., Stalick, W., Roth, R, 2014, Organic
Chemistry Laboratory Manual, 2nd Edition: Pearson
Custom Publishing: 171 p.
Pavia, D.L., Lampman, G.M., Kriz, G.S., Engel, .G.R.,
2011, Introduction to Organic Laboratory
Techniques, A Small Scale Approach, GMU Edition,
Chem 315/318, Cengage Learning
Reference Citations – Website URLs
http://riodb01.ibase.aist.go.jp/sdbs/cgi-bin/
direct_frame_top.cgi
(The above site provides Mass, IR, Proton & C-13
NMR Spectra)
http://chemfinder.cambridgesoft.com
(The above site provides Synonyms, Physical
Properties, Molecular Formulas, Structural
Formulas)
http://www.chemexper.com
Other website URLs you might use.
Organic Chemistry Laboratory (I & ll)
Report Elements (Con't)
5. References (Con’t) – Compound Citations
In addition to the text references, the report
requires citations for the chemical compound(s)
synthesized or identified in the experiment. The
following sources can be used as references:
 CRC Handbook of Chemistry & Physics, 84th
Edition, Lide, D.R., Editor-in-chief, 2003-2004,
CRC Press, page no., item no.
 Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds,
Weast, R.C., Astle, M.J., 1985, CRC Press
 The Merck Index, 13th Edition, 2001, O’Neil, M.J.
Senior Editor, Merck & Co., Inc
The citation for a compound must include:
 Formal International Union of Pure & Applied
Chemistry (IUPAC) name
 One Synonym (common name)
 Chemical Abstracts Registry Number (CAS)
 Publication, Date, Edition
 Author (Editor)
 Page number where compound was found.
 Item number of compound
Chemistry Laboratory
Report Elements (Con't)
5. References (Con’t) – Compound Citations
Synonyms
In many cases organic compounds have several
names in addition to the formal (IUPAC) name.
Use the following steps to find the formal name:
 Use Google search or Bing
 Type in the name of the compound that you are
using .
 Wekipedia and other sites can be used to find
information about your compound, including
the Chemical Abstract System (CAS)
Registration No. (XXX-ZZ-Y)
 The CAS number can be used to locate your
compound in a variety of websites and printed
resources that may have the compound listed
by just a single or limited number of the
various synonyms.
 Use the CAS no. to fine the formal chemical
name in the Merck Index or the CRC Handbook
of Chemistry & Physics – Printed version or
on-line version (ChemnetBase from the GMU
on-line database library)
Chemistry Laboratory
Typical page from “chemfinder.com” web site containing
Synonyms, CAS No., Molecular Formula, Physical
Properties, Structural Info.
(http://chemfinder.cambridgesoft.com)
Chemistry Laboratory
Report Elements (Con't)
5. References (Con’t) - Synonyms
 Both the CRC Handbook and the Merck Index
have cross-reference tables linking the CAS No.
to the compound in the properties table.
 In the CRC book, the item number – crossreferenced from the CAS no. – is in the first
column followed by a “Name” column and a
“Synonym” column.
 The more formal name could be in either the 2nd
column or the 3rd column.
 In the Merck Index, the formal chemical name is
usually the name in italics following the CAS No.
 The citation includes the following in order:
 Formal IUPAC Name, Synonym (1), CAS No.,
Reference Source, including item number in
the table and the page number
Example:
1,4-dimethylbenzene (p-xylene),
CAS No. 106-42-3, CRC Handbook of Chemistry
& Physics, 2003, 84th ed., Lide, D.R., Editor:
# 4800, p. 3-256
Organic Chemistry Laboratory (I & ll)
Report Elements (Con’t):
6. Procedures:
a. In general, start each new procedure on a NEW
page. Exceptions can be made when two (2) or
more procedures and associated results can be
placed on one page in their entirety without
crowding.
b. The procedure description is placed in the left
column of the procedure table in the template.
Applicable results for a given procedure go in
the column just to the right of the Procedure
description.
c. Each procedure is setup as an individual
numbered and named entity. It includes:
a) Procedure No. & Title
b) Materials, and Equipment (M & E)

Use two (2) columns in list (bullet)
format, one for Materials and one for
Equipment.

The Materials column includes,
disposable items (capillary tubes, etc.),
principal reagents and amounts used

Apparatus setups need to include a
detailed list of the major components
(distillation head, condenser, Meltemp
apparatus, Filter Flask, etc.)
Chemistry Laboratory
Report Elements (Con’t):
6. Procedures (Con’t):
c. Procedure Setup (Con’t):
c) Procedure Description
 A short, concise, but complete, description
of the experimental steps used to obtain a
particular experiment result.
 The procedure descriptions should be an
abbreviated form of the detailed
instructions from the lab text, lab manual, or
Web Site Notes.
 The student should use his/her own words,
i.e., DO NOT COPY THE BOOK.
 The Procedure steps should be complete
sentences put in list (bullet) format.
 If the procedure involves a computation, the
algorithm is setup as part of the procedure
description. Variables must be defined.
 The equation (derived as necessary) must
be setup to represent the computational
form of the algorithm.
Chemistry Laboratory
Report Elements (Con’t):
6. Procedures (Con’t):
d. Procedure Scenarios:
a) If the experiment is the identification of an
unknown substance, the following initial
procedures are applicable.
 If the sample is a liquid the next procedure
is to purify the sample and determine its
boiling point by Simple Distillation.
 The second procedure in the report is the
description of the purified unknown
sample – solid, liquid, color, odor, etc.
 The next procedure for a liquid is to
determine its Refractive Index, followed by
a sub-procedure to correct the Refractive
Index for temperature.
ND20 = ND RmTemp + t (0.00045 / oC)
t = Room Temp - 20
 If the unknown sample is a solid, the
melting point is determined.
 Determine the relative Solubility of the
unknown in distilled water.
 Determine the Density of the unknown
relative to distilled water.
 Obtain IR Spectrum and NMR Spectrum
Chemistry Laboratory
Report Elements (Con’t):
6. Procedures (Con’t):
d. Procedure Scenarios (Con’t):
b) If the experiment is the Synthesis of a
compound, the first objective is to determine
the Theoretical Yield.
To do this you must determine the following
in sequence:





The Masses of the Reagents
The Moles of the Regents
The Stoichiometric Molar Ratios
The Limiting Reagent
The Theoretical Yield.
NOTE: Each of the above items would be a
separate procedure in the report.
Chemistry Laboratory
Report Elements (Con’t):
6. Procedures (Con’t)
d. Procedure Scenarios (Con’t)
b) Synthesis of Compound (Con’t)
If one or more of the reactants is a solid, the
following considerations are applicable:
 Determine Mass of reactant A to the
nearest 0.001 g. by weighing
 Determine Mass of reactant B to the
nearest 0.001 g. by weighing
Note: Since the 2 steps above involve
the same process to determine
the mass of the reagents, only
one (1) procedure is required.
 Compute the Moles of reactants A & B.
Note: This is a separate procedure
Chemistry Laboratory
Report Elements (Con’t):
6. Procedures (Con’t):
d. Procedure Scenarios (Con’t):
b)
Synthesis of a Compound (Con't):
If one or more of the reactants is a liquid the
following considerations are applicable:
 If a reactant is an Inorganic liquid, e.g.,
acid or base, use a Volumetric Pipet
(volume precision is good to at least 0.001
ml).
 This volume must be converted to Mass
using the relationship between volume,
density and mass
Density = Mass / Vol
Mass
= Density x Vol
 The Mass must be adjusted for the
percentage content of the solute in the
solution. For example, the % Nitric Acid
in conc Nitric acid is 70%. Thus, the mass of
HNO3 is 70% of the mass of the solution.
 As an alternative, the relationship between
Volume and Molarity can also be used to
determine the number of moles being used.
(Molarity = Moles / Liter)
Chemistry Laboratory
Report Elements (Con’t):
6. Procedures (Con’t):
d. Procedure Scenarios (Con’t):
b) Synthesis of a Compound (Con't):
 If one or more of the reactants is a organic
liquid the following considerations are
applicable:
 The density and percentage content are
usually not applicable.
 Organic liquids should be weighed
directly to obtain the mass to the nearest
0.001 g.
 Once the mass is determined, it is
converted to moles.
 Once the Moles of Reactants have been
determined, set up the Stoichiometric
balanced equation and determine the Molar
Ratios
 Determine Limiting Reagent from the
number of Moles actually used in the
experiment and the Molar Ratio from the
balanced equation.
Note: See example computations
 Compute the Theoretical Yield
Chemistry Laboratory
Report Elements (Con’t)
7. Results
The results obtained from the experiment are
reported on the “Right” side of the report page
opposite the procedure description.
The format of each “Results” section must be
carefully designed so that the data / observations /
calculations are presented in a logical and clearly
readable manner, i.e., NEAT. The results are
tabulated (not discussed) in a table or other
designed format. Excel tables can be imported.
Procedure #1- Boiling Point
Materials
Equipment
___
___
___
___
Procedure Description
 1st bullet
 2nd bullet
Equation Setup
Results
Observations
Measurements
(Tables, if applicable)
Calculations:
Show data substitutions,
units, and appropriate
precision
Chemistry Laboratory
Download the Lab Report Template from the Web Site
Information is typed in the shaded blocks of the tables.
Procedure Descriptions, Materials, Equipment are “Bulletized”
Information for the “Header” table is entered as follows:
1. Select “Header & Footer” from the “View” Menu.
2. Enter the appropriate information into the shaded blocks.
3. Select “Print View” from the “View” Menu
4. The Header information will flow automatically to each page.
Typical Header Table
Experiment:
Date:
Type the Name of the Experiment Here
Name
Partners
Drawer No.
Type Your Name
Type Your Partners Names (if any)
Course / Section
Chem 315 / 202
Typical Procedure Table
Proc # 1
Type procedure Title Here
Materials
 Unknown # Q46
Results
Equipment
Type results of the procedure here.
50 mL Erlenmyer flask
Desc:
Procedure Descriptions must be:
 Bullets
 Complete Sentences
 Full, but brief description of the process
The Results template must be:
 Organized
 Neat
 Logically presented
Procedures involving equations must show
the computation for each result.
Equation Setup:
Show the Equation to be used (if applicable) and define the
variables.
NOTE: Each Shaded Block Will Expand As Necessary To Accommodate
Additional Lines Of Information.
Procedure Examples
Experiment:
Date:
Melting Point / Refractive Index
Name
Proc # 1
Partners
Drawer No.
Melting Point of 2 known substances
Materials
Equipment
 Capillary tubes
 3 ft glass tubing
 2 known compounds
• Meltemp Apparatus
Course / Section
Results
Substance # 1
1st MP
2nd MP
85.4oC
85.2oC
86.2oC
86.1oC
• Crush small amount of dried sample on a clean watch
glass.
Avg: 85.3oC
86.2oC
• Insert about 1/4 in. sample into glass capillary tube by
gently tapping sample with open end.
Substance # 2
Desc:
• Insert glass tube, closed end down, into a 3ft long
glass tube from instructor's desk, and let melting
point tube drop and bounce on desk atop
• Sample should move from open end to closed end.
• Place tube with sample in Mel Temp apparatus and
slowly raise temperature until sample melts.
• Allow sample to solidify and repeat melting process;
this time reducing rate of temperature rise even
slower when temperature reaches a few degrees
before sample is expected to melt.
• Note temperature at which sample first starts to melt
and when sample is completely melted
This is the melting point range.
• Repeat for additional samples.
Equation Setup:
93.7oC
93.9oC
95.1oC
95.4oC
Avg: 93.8oC
94.3oC
Procedure Examples
Experiment:
Date:
Nitration of Methyl Benzoate
Name
Partners
Proc 1
Drawer No.
Determine Mass of Methyl Benzoate
Materials
• Methyl Benzoate
Equipment
• Balance
• Calculator
Course / Section
Results
Mass Vial + Methyl Benzoate - 6.358 g
Mass Vial
- 3.189 g
Mass Methyl Benzoate
- 3.169 g
Desc:
• Obtain approximately 3 g of Methyl Benzoate weighed to
the nearest 0.001 g.
Equation Setup:
Vial Full – Vial Empty = Mass of Reagent
Proc # 2
Compute the Moles of Methyl Benzoate
Materials
Equipment
• Calculator
Desc:
• Compute moles from the Mass and the Molecular Weight
Equation Setup:
Moles = Mass(g) / Mol Wgt (g/mole)
Results
Moles MB = 3.169 g / 136.15 g/mole
= 0.02328 moles MB
Note: Appropriate Precision must be applied
to Calculations and Results.
See last page of this document for
review of data precision
Procedure Examples
Experiment:
Date:
Nitration of Methyl Benzoate
Name
Partners
Proc 3
Drawer No.
Determine Mass of Nitric Acid
Materials
• Conc Nitric Acid (70%)
Equipment
• Graduated Cylinder
• Calculator
Course / Section
Results
Vol HNO3 = 2.000 mL
Mass MB = Den x Vol x % Comp
= 1.41g/ml x 2.000ml x 0.70
= 2.04 g
Desc:
• Use Volumetric Pipet to obtain 2.000 mL HNO3
• Calculate Mass of HNO3 from Volume,
Density (1.41 g/mL) and % composition.
Equation Setup:
Density = Mass / Vol
Mass
Proc # 4
= Density(g/ml) x Vol(ml) x % Comp
Compute the Moles of Nitric Acid
Materials
Equipment
• Calculator
Desc:
• Compute moles from the Mass and the Molecular Weight
Equation Setup:
Moles = Mass(g) / Mol Wgt(g/mole)
Results
Moles HNO3 = 2.04g / 63.02 g/mole
= 0.0329 moles
Procedure Examples
Experiment:
Date:
Nitration of Methyl Benzoate
Name
Partners
Proc 5
Mix Reagents and Initiate the Reaction
Materials
• Conc Nitric Acid
• Methyl Benzoate
Drawer No.
Equipment
• 50 mL Beakers
• Stirring Rod
• Ice / Water Bath
Desc:
• Place Benzoic Acid and 6 mL Conc Sulfuric Acid in a 50
mL beaker in an ice/water bath.
• In a separate beaker in an ice/water bath put Conc HNO3
and 2 ml Conc Sulfuric Acid.
• Drop wise add H2SO4/HNO3 mixture to the H2SO4/Benzoic
Acid mixture stirring continuously with stirring rod.
Equation Setup:
Results
Course / Section
Procedure Examples
Experiment:
Date:
Nitration of Methyl Benzoate
Name
Partners
Proc # 6
Drawer No.
Vacuum Filtration
Materials
• Crude Product
• Distilled Water
• Methanol
Results
Equipment
•
•
•
•
Filter
Buckner Funnel
Vacuum Tubing
Spatula
Desc:
• Isolate precipitated product by vacuum filtration using a
Buckner Funnel
• Attach Vacuum tubing to filter flask and vacuum port on
desktop.
• Place filter moistened with cold water into Bucker Funnel.
• Transfer Product to Buckner Funnel using spatula and
minimal amounts of water.
• Allow vacuum to pull solvent through the filter.
• Wash product with 2 15 mL portions of cold distilled
water.
• Wash product again with 2 15 mL portions of cold
Methanol.
Equation Setup:
Course / Section
Chemistry Laboratory
8. Summary Discussion
a. The summary/discussion is a listing in
“Paragraph” format of the results obtained in the
experiment, i.e., ALL RESULTS.
b. The results are not to be embellished or
interpreted in any way. It is simply a summary
listing of each result you obtained.
9. Analysis/Conclusions
a. A step by step presentation of arguments,
utilizing selected results as applicable, to make a
statement in support of any conclusions you
have reached regarding the results of the
experiment.
Ex. What sequence of results lead to your
selection of the identity of the Unknown
compound?
How did your yield compare to the calculated
theoretical yield?
How does Gas Chromatography determination
of Mole Percent in a mixture compare to the
composition as determined by Fractional
Distillation?
What functional groups were identified from
the IR analysis and how did you decide on a
particular compound structure?
Procedure Examples
Experiment:
Date:
Nitration of Methyl Benzoate
Name
Partners
Drawer No.
Course / Section
Summary of Results:
The results (ALL RESULTS) of the experiment are summarized here in a paragraph.
Ex.
The melting point of the 1st known was 67.8oC. The refractive index of the known
compound was 1.4267. The corrected value for the refractive index raw value was
1.4261. The principal absorptions in the IR Spectrum were, saturation at 2800-3000
cm-1; carbonyl at 1720 cm-1, C-O bond at 1275 cm-1. The percent yield of the product
was 68.5%.
Analysis & Conclusions:
Develop a logical set of arguments, using selected experimental results to support any
conclusions you have reached about the experiment.
Note: The identity of an unknown should not be declared until AFTER the arguments
supporting its identity have been developed.
Summary of Compound Properties
Use table for Experimental Unknowns & Synthesized Compounds only.
Use appropriate literature resources to fill in “Literature” values, even if
experimental results are not available.
Literature Summary (Unknowns, Synthesized Compounds) (Do Not List Reagents)
Unknown
Number
Name (IUPAC)
Synonyms
Melting Point
(oC)
Lit
Exp
Lit
Exp
Lit
Exp
Lit
Exp
Boiling Point
(oC)
Lit
Exp
Lit
Exp
Lit
Exp
Lit
Exp
Refractive
Index (nD20)
Lit
Exp
Lit
Exp
Lit
Exp
Solubility
(Rel to Water)
Lit
Exp
Lit
Exp
Lit
Exp
Lit
Exp
Density
Rel to Water
Lit
Exp
Lit
Exp
Lit
Exp
Lit
Exp
Molecular
Formula
Structural
Formula
Chemistry Laboratory Report
Grading Form
Sec
Unk No.
Experiment:
Name:
Report Segment
Lab Report (Pre-Lab & Final)
Grade
Codes
Max
Pts
Reference Citations
Background / theory citations
Compound citations, i.e., CRC
Handbook, Merck Index
Procedure descriptions, result templates
5
Brief, concise statement of what the experiment
will accomplish and by what means, i.e., Principal
Instrumentation, Reaction Type, etc.
10
Use formal citation format – Author(s), date, title,
publisher, pages.
Synthesized & identified compounds must also be
referenced, including the page no.
5
List in “Bullet” Format”, of the equipment &
materials used in the experiment.
Use two (2) columns: Materials
Equipment
10
Description, in “Bullet Format”
Each step in a separate bullet
Use grammatically correct original language
Procedure Descriptions
Theoretical Yield
Applicable to experiments
involving compound synthesis.
A logically organized listing - in paragraph form of the procedures to be used.
5
Materials & Equipment
Computations
Usually set up as separate
procedures. Equation is setup as
part of procedure description.
Comments
10
Purpose
Approach
Each Procedure gets a sentence
Rpt
Pts
10
10
Set up equation & define the variables
All calculations must be shown and must include
data substitutions and applicable units.
Results must reflect appropriate precision.
Stoichiometric balanced reaction equation, molar
ratio, reaction mechanism, limiting reagent,
theoretical yield, summary table
Results
Observations, Measurements,
Computations, Spectra results
10
Summary of Results
10
Paragraph summarizing all of the experimental
results obtained.
Analysis, Significance of
Results, Conclusions
10
Construct logical arguments, using applicable
background, theory, and experimental results to
support any conclusions about the results.
Literature Summary Table
5
Summary Table: literature and experimental
values for principal reagents, synthesized
compounds, or identified compounds.
Total Points
100
Organize logically, neatly. Use aligned columns or
small tables when appropriate. Includes spectra
absorption summary. Don’t crowd.
Late Penalty
Final Points
Laboratory Report Grading Codes
Lab Report (Pre-Lab & Final)
Code
Comment
a Report
– not done, late, incomplete
b Report Template
– not used, not typed
c Header Info
– missing, incomplete
d References
– missing, incomplete
e Purpose/Approach – missing, incomplete, weak
f Procedure Descrip – missing, incomplete, weak
g Procedure Setup
– disorganized, ambiguous
h Procedure Setup
– crowded, start on new page
i Result Templates
– missing, incomplete
j Reactions/Equations– missing, incomplete
Purpose
Code
Comment
a Text
– format, grammar, sentence structure
b Text
– wordy, overstated, superfluous
c Text
– originality, use your own words
d Elements – omit background. approach items
e Elements – principal reaction/equipment missing
f Elements – missing, incomplete
g Elements – technically weak, incorrect
h Elements – disorganized, ambiguous
Approach
Code
Comment
a Text
– format, grammar, sentence structure
b Text
– wordy, overstated, superfluous
c Text
– not in paragraph form
d Text
– originality, use your own words
e Elements – each element in a separate sentence
f Elements – omit background, procedural details
g Elements – missing, incomplete
h Elements – technically weak, incorrect
i Elements – disorganized, ambiguous
Reference Citations
Code
Comment
a Reference Citation – missing, incomplete
b Reference Citation – incorrect
c URL Citation
– missing, incomplete
d Compound Citation – missing, incomplete
e Compound Citation – incorrect
f Compound Citation – page no., item no., missing
g Citation Source
– not citable (website, catalog)
Materials & Equipment (M&E)
Code
Comment
a Format
– not in 2-column “bullet” format
b M&E items – missing, incomplete
c M&E items – mislabeled, incorrect
Procedures
Code
Comment
a Procedure No.
– missing, incorrect
b Procedure Title – missing, incomplete, incorrect
c Procedure Title – wordy, overstated
d Procedures
– missing
e Procedures
– not used, not applicable
f Procedures
– disorganized, ambiguous
g Procedures
– need to be separated
h Procedures
– need to be combined
i Procedure Desc – not in “Bullet” format
j Procedure Desc – missing, incomplete
k Procedure Desc – disorganized, ambiguous
l Procedure Desc – technically weak, incorrect
m Procedure Desc – originality, use your own words
n Procedure Text – grammar, sentence structure
o Procedure Text – wordy, overstated, superfluous
p Extraneous Info – omit analysis & conclusions
Theoretical Yield
Code
Comment
a Reaction Equation
– missing, incomplete, incorrect
b Molar Ratio
– missing, incomplete, incorrect
c Reaction Mechanism – missing, incomplete, incorrect
d Limiting Reagent
– missing, incomplete, incorrect
e Theoretical Yield
– missing, incomplete, incorrect
f Summary Table
– missing, incomplete, incorrect
Results (Includes Tables, Charts & IR/NMR spectra)
Code
Comment
a Template
– weak design, disorganized
b Presentation
– messy, not typed
c Results
– missing, incomplete
d Results
– incorrect, ambiguous
e Results
– redundant, misplaced
f Tables, Charts – missing, incomplete, incorrect
g Spectra
– missing, incomplete, incorrect
h Spectra Labels – missing, incomplete, incorrect
i Extraneous Info – omit background, procedure items
j Conclusions
– out of place, move to analysis
Computations / Chemical Reactions
Code
a Equation Setup `
b Variables
c Data Substitution
d Computation
`
e Units
f Chem Reactions
g Precision, Sig Fig
Summary of Results
Code
Comment
– missing, incomplete, incorrect
– undefined, ambiguous
– missing, incomplete, incorrect
– missing, incomplete, incorrect
– missing, incomplete, incorrect
– missing, incomplete, incorrect
– incorrect
Comment
a Results
– missing, incomplete
b Results
– incorrect, don’t match report
c Results
– disorganized, ambiguous
d Results
– each result in a separate sentence
e Text
– not in paragraph format
f Text
– grammar, sentence structure
g Text
– wordy, overstated, superfluous
h Extraneous Info – omit background, procedural details
i Conclusions
– out of place, move to analysis
Analysis, Significance of Results, Conclusions
Code
Comment
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
Analysis
Analysis
Analysis
Analysis
Analysis
Analysis
Results
Text
Text
Extraneous Info
– missing, incomplete
– weak, incorrect
– disorganized, ambiguous
– arguments incomplete, missing
– arguments lack support data
– weak theory connection
– repeat of summary of results
– grammar, sentence structure
– wordy, overstated, superfluous
– omit, purpose, procedural details
Literature Summary Table
Code
Comment
a Literature Summary Table – missing, incomplete
b Unknown No.
– missing, incorrect
c Unknown Identification
– missing, incorrect
d Compound (IUPAC) Name – missing, incorrect
e Compound Synonyms
– missing, incorrect
f Physical Properties
– missing, incorrect
g Molecular Formula
– missing, incorrect
h Structural Formula
– missing, incorrect
i Report Template
– do not modify
Chemistry Lab Report - Computations
1. There is NO separate Calculations section.
2. Each computation is placed in the report as a
NEW PROCEDURE
A Computation Procedure is created as soon as all
pertinent information needed for the calculation
becomes available through prior experimental
results and/or other computed results.
3. Each computation is to be setup as a separate
procedure. The equation is setup along with
variable definitions in the procedure description.
The data substitution and final calculations are
presented in the results section across from the
description section. Appropriate units must be
presented and the calculations must be carried out
with correct precision.
4. The student must plan and design the results
section to accommodate all of the anticipated
results – measured, observed, or computed - for a
given procedure. New procedures should not be
started until the previous procedure and
associated results are completed.
5. Computations using results from two or more
procedures should be grouped and presented in a
separately titled procedure as soon as all of the
pertinent data for the new computation is available.
Chemistry Lab Report - Computations
6. Computation Setup
a. In the “Description” box of the Procedure
section provide a brief description of the
equation and what it does.
b. Set up the equation in the “Equation Setup”
box of the Procedure Section.
c. The equation setup should define the variables
used in the equation and their logical
relationship.
d. In the “Results” box of the Procedure section
show the values of the variables used in the
equation and then substitute the values in the
equation and make the final calculation.
e. Show appropriate units.
f.
Report results to appropriate accuracy, i.e.
correct number of decimal places and
significant figures.
Note: When multiple computations are done
using the same “Equation” only “ONE”
procedure is needed.
If the equation changes then a “NEW”
procedure is required.
Chemistry Lab Report - Computations
7. Organic Chem Lab Algorithms
Many of the Organic Laboratory Reports require the
student to make computations for selected results.
These include:
1. Mass of a reagent from the weight of the vial
containing the reagent and the mass of the vial
empty.
Mass Vial
Mass Vial
Mass
+
Compound
= 9.234g
= 6.528g
Compound = 2.706g
2. Mass of a liquid reagent (generally inorganic
acids or bases) from the volume, density, and
% composition.
Mass (g) = Vol(mL) x Den(g/mL) x % comp/100
3. Moles of reagents from the Mass and Molecular
Weight.
moles = mass / mol wgt.
4. The Moles of a reagent can also be computed
directly from the Volume and Molarity of the
reagent, e.g. the Molarity of concentrated HCL is
12 moles/L
moles = Vol(L) x Molarity (moles/L)
Chemistry Lab Report - Computations
8. Limiting Reagent
 The “Limiting Reagent” is that reactant whose
mass (on a molar equivalent basis) actually
consumed in the reaction is less than the amount
of the other reactant, i.e., the reactant in excess.
 From the Stoichiometric balanced reaction
equation determine the molar ratio among the
reactants and products, i.e., how many moles of
reagent A react with how many moles of reagent
B to yield how many moles of product C, D, etc.
 If the ratio of moles of A to moles of B actually
used is greater than the Stoichiometric molar
ratio of A to B, then the A reagent is in “Excess”
and the B reagent is “Limiting.”
 If, however, the actual molar ratio of A to B used
is less than the Stoichiometric molar ratio, then B
is in excess and A is “Limiting.”
Example 1
A + B  C Molar Ratio A:B = 1
Moles actually used: A = 0.345
B = 0.698
Ratio of moles actually used (A/B):
0.345/0.698 = 0.498
0.498 < 1.0  B is in excess) & A is Limiting
The theoretical yield of product will be the same
as the “limiting Reagent” on a molar equivalent
basis (A/C=1), i.e., 0.0345 moles.
Chemistry Lab Report - Computations
8. Limiting Reagent
Example 2
A + B  C
Stoichiometric Molar ratio A:B = 1 : 1
= 1.0
Moles actually used:
A = 0.20
B = 0.12
Ratio of Moles actually used (A/B):
0.20 / 0.12 = 1.67
The ratio of A:B is greater than 1.00
A is in excess and B is limiting.
Only 0.12 moles of the 0.2 moles of A would be
required to react with the 0.12 moles of B.
The reaction would have a theoretical yield of 0.12
moles of C (Molar Ratio of B:C = 1).
Example 3 – Molar Ratio 1:2:1
A
+
2B  C
Stoichiometric Molar ratio A:B = 1 : 2
= 0.5
Moles actually used:
A = 0.0069; B = 0.023
Ratio of Moles actually used (A/B):
0.0069 / 0.023 = 0.30 < 0.5
 A is limiting
Only 0.0069  2 = 0.0138 moles of the 0.023 moles
of B are required to react with 0.0069 moles of A.
Since 0.0138 < 0.023: B is in excess, A is limiting.
The reaction would have a theoretical yield of
0.0069 moles of C (Molar Ratio of A:C = 1).
Chemistry Lab Report - Computations
8. Limiting Reagent (Con’t)
 Limiting Reagent Procedure Setup
Proc # 5
Determine Limiting
Reagent
Materials
Equipment
 Calculator
Results
Stoichiometric Ratio:
1: 1
Moles Ethyl Alcohol
0.456
Actual Ratio =
=
= 0.702 < 1
Moles Acetic Acid
0.650
Desc:
 Compare stoichiometric molar ratio
of reactants to the actual molar ratio
 If the actual ratio is less than the
Ethyl Alcohol is limiting
stoichiometric ratio, then the
numerator reactant is limiting
Equation Setup:Moles Ethyl Alcohol
Actual Ratio =
Moles Acetic Acid
Alternative Limiting Reagent Determination
4 NH3(g) + 5 O2(g)  4NO(g) + 6 H2O(g)
2.00 g NH3 is mixed with 4.00 g Oxygen
2.00 g NH 3 ×
4.00 g O2 ×
1 mol NH 3 4 mol NO 30.0 g NO
×
×
= 3.53 g NO
17.0 g NH 3 4 mol NH 4 1 mol NO
1 mol O2 4 mol NO 30.0 g NO
×
×
= 3.00 g NO
32.0 g O2 5 mol O2 1 mol NO
The limiting reactant that produces the lesser
amount of product (NO) is Oxygen:
(3.00g vs. 3.54g)
Chemistry Lab Report - Computations
9. The Theoretical Yield Table (Con’t)
 The Theoretical Yield, in grams, is computed
from the number of moles of the “Limiting
Reagent”, the Stoichiometric Molar Ratio,
and the Molecular Weight of the product.
Yield = moles (Lim) x Molar Ratio x Mol
Wgt
 The Percent Yield of a product obtained in a
“Synthesis” experiment is computed from
the amount of product actually obtained in
the experiment and the Theoretical Yield.
% Yield = Actual Yield / Theoretical Yield x
100
Note: The yield values can be expressed in
either grams or moles
 Lab Report: Limiting Reagent Procedure
setup
Chemistry Lab Report - Computations
10. Retention Time is the time from point of injection of
a compound into a Gas Chromatograph to its
elution from the column. For a given set of
instrument conditions this time is constant for any
given compound. Thus, it can be used to identify
compounds in an unknown mixture when
compared to a mixture of known compounds.
The retention time can be computed using the
chart speed and the distance from the start point
on the chromatogram to the mid-point of the peak.
Velocity
= Distance / Time
Retention Time = Distance / Chart Speed
Chemistry Lab Report - Computations
10. Peak Area / Molar Content
The Area of a peak in a Gas Chromatogram is
proportional to the Mole content of the mixture.
Thus, the ratio of the peak area of a given compound
and the total area of all the peaks on the
chromatogram gives the mole fraction of the
compound.
The Peak Area can be computed by the
“Triangulation Method,” which is the height of the
peak multiplied by the “Width” of the peak at 1/2 the
height of the peak:
Area = Peak Height x Width @ 1/2 peak height
The Mole Fraction is computed by dividing the
individual peak areas by the sum of peak areas in
the chromatogram.
Mole Fraction = Peak Area / Total Peak Area
The Mole Percent is computed by multiplying the
Mole Fraction values by 100.
Mole % = Mole Fraction x 100
Chemistry Lab Report - Computations
11.Thermal Response Adjustments to GC Peak Areas
 Mixtures of compounds will produce GC peak
areas proportional to the molar content.
 Thus, Equimolar mixtures of compounds should
produce Gas Chromatography peaks of equal
area.
 Similarly, mixtures of any known molar content
will produce peak areas in direct proportion to the
molar content.
 Compounds with different functional groups or
widely varying molecular weights do not all have
the same Thermal Conductivity. This causes the
instrument to produce response variations, which
result in peak areas that are not in direct
proportion to the molar content.
 Mole percent values of a mixture of unknown
mole percent computed from peak areas can be
adjusted for any non-linear thermal response
based on the peak areas obtained from a mixture
of similar compounds with a known Molar
content, generally an equimolar mixture
containing similar compounds in the unknown
mixture.
Chemistry Lab Report - Computations
11.Thermal Response Adjustments (Con’t)
 Correction Factors (called “Thermal Response
Factors (TR)” are computed as ratios of the
area of one peak in the known mixture acting
as the “base peak” to the area of each of the
other peaks in the mixture.
Where subscript “s” refers to the “Base Peak”
and subscript “i” refers to each compound in
the mixture.
Note: There must be a least two similar
compounds in the known & unknown mixtures.
 The relationship between the peak areas of a
mixture of compounds, the Molar Content, and
the Thermal Response factors can be
expressed as follows:
area
area
moles

moles
i
s
i
s
TR

TR
i
s
 Since the Areas of the peaks in the unknown
mixture can be obtained by measurement and
the Thermal Response Factors are known from
the known mixture, the new corrected molar
ratios can be obtained by rearranging the
above equation:
moles
moles
i
s

area
area
i
s

TR
TR
s
i
Chemistry Lab Report - Computations
11. Thermal Response Adjustments (Con’t)
 Each of the Molei / Moles values in the mixture is
equivalent to the individual areas (now corrected
for the Thermal Response effect) that were used
to compute the “Total Area” of the peaks prior to
computing the “Mole Fraction” and “Mole
Percent” without the Thermal Response
correction.
 Therefore, by adding the Molei / Moles values to
get a “Total” value, the new corrected Mole
Fraction can be computed by dividing each of the
Molei / Moles values by the “Total” value.
 The new Mole Percent values are then computed
by multiplying the new Mole Fractions times 100.
Example:
Measured
Standard
Equimolar
Mixture
Peak Area
ProAc (3)
BuAc (4)
HexAc (6)
1.44
1.09
1.16
0.98
TRs/TRi = As/Ai
1.44
(s=2)
1.44
Measured
=
=
=
=
areai/areas
2.14
(s=2)
2.14
mol2 / mol2
mol3 / mol2
mol4 / mol2
mol5 / mol2
= 1.00
2.14
Peak Area
Unknown
Mixture
EtAc / EtAc
ProAc / EtAc
BuAc / EtAc
PenAc / EtAc
EtAc (2)
=
=
=
=
= 1.00
area2 / area2
area3 / area2
area4 / area2
area5 / area2
 moli/mol2
=
 mole % EtAc =
 mole % ProAc =
 mole % BuAc =
 mole % PenAc =
1.44
1.09
= 1.33
1.44
1.16
2.18
2.18
2.14
2.12
= 1.35
 TR2 / TR2
 TR2 / TR3
 TR2 / TR4
 TR2 / TR5
= 1.24
=
=
=
=
1.00 + 1.35 + 1.23 + 1.07 =
1.00 / 4.65 * 100
=
1.35 / 4.65 * 100
=
1.23 / 4.65 * 100
=
1.07 / 4.65 * 100
=
2.12
2.14
2.14
2.18
2.12
1.54
4.65
21.5%
29.0%
26.5%
23.0%
0.98
= 1.48
1.54
= 1.23
/ 2.14
/ 2.14
/ 2.14
/ 2.14
1.44
1.54
2.14
= 1.07
 1.00 = 1.00
 1.33 = 1.35
 1.24 = 1.23
 1.48 = 1.07
Chemistry Lab Report - Computations
12. Refractive Index
 The measured value of Refractive Index must be
corrected to a standard temperature (usually 20oC)
 The Index of Refraction (ND) decreases with
increasing temperature, i.e., velocity of light in the
medium increases as density decreases.
 Measured values of (ND) are adjusted to 20oC
For measured temperatures >20oC, the correction
factor computed below is added to the measured
value because the value at 20 oC would be greater
than the value at the measured temperature.
Corrections for measured values <20oC are
subtracted from the measured value.
 Temp Correction Factor
t * 0.00045 = (Room Temp – 20) * 0.00045
 The following equation automatically accounts for
the measured temperature:
ND20 = NDRm Temp +
t
* 0.00045
ND20 = NDRm Temp + (Room Temp – 20) * 0.00045
Ex: For an observed value of 1.5523 at 16oC, the
correction is:
ND20 =
=
=
=
1.5523 + (16 – 20) * 0.00045
1.5523
( – 4 ) * 0.00045
1.5523 – 0.0018
1.5505
IR /NMR Problem Set Notes
1. The Problem Set is a Powerpoint document that will
be E-Mailed to each student.
2. The problem answers are to be completed, i.e., typed,
in the shaded boxes provided.
3. Compound structures and materials not suitable for
typing will be hand-entered in the shaded boxes.
4. Each problem consists of one or more parts, each of
which has a shaded text box in which the student
provides the required information.
5. In the Spectra problems, the student is expected to
provide an analysis of the information provided for
each part, i.e., Mass Spectrum, Partial Elemental
Analysis, Ultraviolet/Visual Spectra, Infrared Spectra,
1H (proton) NMR Spectra, 6C (Carbon-13) NMR
1
13
Spectra.
6. The above results are then pulled together in a
logical set of arguments leading to the identity of the
compound, its molecular formula, and its structure.
7. The problem set counts as two (2) quiz grades.
8. See the next three (3) pages for notes on the analysis
process.
9. Also check the Web Site documents on the IR and
NMR lecture material.
IR /NMR Problem Set Notes
10. Each problem provides several pieces of information
to help in the identification process.
a. IR Spectrum (Functional Groups)
b. 1H1 NMR Spectrum (No., Type, Location of
Protons)
c.
13C
6 NMR
Spectrum (No. & Type Carbon atoms)
d. UV-Vis Molar Absorptivity (Molar Extinction
Coefficient) –  & log 
 Conjugate systems (alternating double bonds
- , - Unsaturated ketones, Dienes, Polyenes)
show values of  & log  in the range:
 = 10,000 – 100,000 (Log  = 4 – 5)
 Aromatic Conjugated Systems show values of
 and log  in the range:
 = 1000 – 10,000
(Log  = 3 – 4)
 Carbonyl (C=O) compounds show values of 
and log  in the range:
 = 30 – 300
(Log  = 1.5 – 2.5)
 Nitro (-1O–N+ =O) compounds show values of 
in the range:
 = <10
(Log  < 1.0)
IR /NMR Problem Set Notes
e. Mass Spectrum with Molecular Ion Peak
 Molecular Ion Peak represents Molecular
Weight.
 Molecular Ion peak values that are Odd indicate
the presence of an Odd number of Nitrogen
atoms in the compound.
 Two Molecular Ion peaks with a relative
abundance ratio of 3:1 indicate presence of a
single Chlorine atom.
 Two Molecular Ion peaks with a relative
abundance ratio of 1:1 indicated presence of a
single Bromine atom.
f. Partial Elemental Analysis of the Compound
 The percentage values given represent the
percent of the compound’s Molecular Weight
attributed to that element.
 Usually %Carbon & % Hydrogen is given.
 The molecular ion peak(s), molar absorptivity
coefficient, and the principal functional groups
from the IR spectrum provide the information
necessary to identify any additional elements
present in the compound.
 The remaining Molecular Weight after the
Carbon and Hydrogen have been accounted for
is divided among the remaining elements in the
compound.
IR /NMR Problem Set Notes
f. Partial Elemental Analysis of the Compound (Con’t)
nx 
Where:
(% X)* (RMM)
100 * (RAM)
nx = No. of Atoms of elements X in compound
RMM = Relative Molecular Mass (Mol Wgt)
RAM = Relative Atomic Mass of Element X
Example
Molecular Weight (RMM)
% Carbon – 62.0%
% Hydrogen – 10.4%

= 58.0800 g/mol
Mol Wgt C (RAM) – 12.01
Mol Wgt H (RAM) – 1.01
62.0 * 58.08
36.01
No. C 

 2.998  3
100 * 12.01 12.01
No. H 
10.4 * 58.08
6.04

100 * 1.01
1.01
 5.981  6
Now compute the remaining mass of the molecule after
accounting for Mass of Carbon and Hydrogen
58.08 – (36.01 + 6.04) = 16.03 ~ 16  1 (Oxygen)
 Molecular Formula – C3H6O
Approximate Numbers and Significant Digits
Some numbers are “Exact” or “Pure”, i.e., having been defined or counted.
Examples:
3 Cherries, 125 People, 50 Measurements, 16 oz in a pound
Most numbers involved in technical and scientific work are obtained through some process of measurement.
All measurement processes are imprecise, i.e., only approximations of the true values. The precision of an
instrument dictates the relative accuracy of the values that can be reported, i.e., the number of significant
digits. The precision of a number refers directly to the position of the last significant digit relative to the
decimal point. All none zero digits are significant. Zeros other than those used as placeholders for proper
positioning of the decimal point, are also significant. There is uncertainty in the last significant digit. For
example: A person records his weight on a scale to be 160 lbs. The last “zero” is a placeholder and is not
significant. Thus, the “6” has uncertainty. His true weight could be 158 lbs, 161 lbs, 159.4 lbs, 160.0 lbs. etc.
When multiplying or dividing groups of measured values the answer will have the same number of
significant digits as the least accurately known number.
When adding or subtracting numbers, the answer is significant only to the fewest number of decimal places
contained in any of the numbers being added or subtracted, i.e. significant to the least precise number.
Number
Significant Digits
9600
2
20004
4.0006
0.0709
6.000
5
5
3
4
0.0005
1
1.07
1.070
3
4
700.00
5
No decimal point; therefore last two zeros are not significant, i.e., placeholders.
The uncertainty is in the last significant digit, i.e. the “6”
Five significant figures; the 3 zeros are significant; the “4” has uncertainty.
5 significant figures; precision is defined to the fourth decimal
3 significant figures; the zero after the decimal is a placeholder
Precision is defined to the third decimal, thus all zeros here are significant.
The uncertainty is in the last zero
Zeros to the right of the decimal are used as placeholders for decimal point
Precision is defined to the fourth decimal.
Precision defined to the second decimal; thus all digits significant
Precision is defined to the third decimal; thus all 4 digits are significant.
The uncertainty is in the last “zero”
Precision is defined to the second decimal, thus all five digits are significant
25 x 11.7
= 290 not 292.5
16.5 / 3.780 = 4.37 not 4.3651
4.65 + 3.8906 = 8.54 not 8.5406
7.71 x 0.001 + 180.5 + 2000 = 2000
7.71 x 0.001 x (1/180.5) x 2000 = 0.1
(0.066 x 39.82) / ( 1.43 x 8.61) = 0.21
(0.008 + 180.5 + 2000) = (180.5 + 2000) = 2000
(0.008 x 0.006 x 2000) = (0.00005 x 2000) = 0.1
(2.6 / 12.3) = 0.21
Citing Chemical References
References:
1.
CRC, Handbook of Chemistry & Physics, 1999-2000, 80th Edition, ed. D, Lide,
Boca Raton, Fl: CRC Press, Inc.
2.
CRC, Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds, Vol I, A-O, Vol II, P-Z, 1987, eds.
R.C. Weast, and M.J. Astle, Boca Raton, Fl: CRC Press, Inc.
3.
Merck & Co., Inc. The Merck Index, 1996, 12th edition, Eds. S. Budavari, M.J.
O’Neil, A. Smith, P.E. Hechelman, and J.F. Kinneary, Whitehouse Station, N.J.:
Merck & Co. Inc, 1996
4.
Dean, J.A., ed. Lang’s Handbook of Chemistry, 14th ed. New York; McGraw-Hill,
1992
Note: When citing a reference for a specific compound, include the page number where
you found the compound.
Online Sources
Note: These resources are not citable as formal references
1.
http://riodb01.ibase.aist.go.jp/sdbs/cgi-bin/direct_frame_top.cgi
(The above site provides Mass, IR, Proton & C-13 NMR Spectra)
2.
http://chemfinder.cambridgesoft.com
3.
http://www.chemexper.com
4.
http://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry
5.
http://knowitallanyware.com/#search
(Chemical Properties)
GMU Library databases
http://library.gmu.edu
Click on : research databases
Chemistry
Knowitall U
Note: To use Knowitall U, you must login to register and get code
Chemistry Department Web Sites
1.
2.
3.
4.
http://classweb.gmu.edu/jschorni
http://gmu.edu/acadexcel/findex.html
http://classweb.gmu.edu/chemlab
http://classweb.gmu.edu/chemlab/315/315expts.htm
(Dr. Schornick Web Page)
(Department Web Page)
(Organic Chemistry)
(Chem 315 Lab)
5.
http://classweb.gmu.edu/chemlab/318/318expts.htm (Chem 318 Lab)
6.
http://chem.gmu.edu/results/
(General Chemistry Lab)

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