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Report
Economy Development and
TVET in Korea
Technical Vocational Education & Training(TVET)
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1. Last 50 Years in Korea
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1. HRD KOREA
 Established in 1982
 A Specialized HRD Organization under MOEL
 Employees : 1,177
 Organization : 1headquarter,
13Bureaus, 39Teams
15 overseas EPS Centers
 Budgets : US $ 1 billion
 Main Mission
- National Competency Standard(NCS)
- Korean Dual System
- National Qualification Testing
- Lifelong Competency Development
- Employment Permit System(EPS)
3
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2. Global Institute For Transferring Skills
GIFTS
 Established in March, 2013 to the HRD Korea
 Main Roles
- Skills Promotion
- Transferring Advanced Skills
Providing
information
- Skills Competitions/ Domestic / International
- International Cooperation
- World skills Korea
 Current Issues
- Knowledge sharing project with WB
- UNESCO BEAR project
- GIZ / ILO project, ASEAN+3 Senminar
- APEC Instructors(TOT)
- Projects with Libya, Tanzania, Cameroon, Uganda,
Nicaragua etc.
3. Glance of GIFTS
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Outcome of Economic Development(GNP)
Financial
Crisis1997
5 yr Economic Dvlp. Plan
Korean
War
1. Commerce scale: Increased by 2,249 times
☞ USD 480 Million → USD 1,079.6 Billion
2. GDP per capita: Increased by 276 times
☞ USD 87 → USD 24,044(2013)
Source: Korea Bank(2012)
Outcome of Economic Development(Export)
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Aligning HRD with Labor Demand
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Efficient supply of industrial workforce based on labor demand
State-led Industrialization
1961~1973
1973~1980
1980~1987
Democratization
1987~1997
• Industrial
• Light
Industrializati • Heavy &
• Economic
on
Chemical
Liberalization
Industrializatio • Economic
Economy • Export
Stabilization • Economic
n
Promotion
Slowdown
Policy
initiated
• Educational
• Statist
Globalization
1997~present
• Expansion
of
Educational
Middle school
• Expansion
Education System
Education
&
of College
• Expansion of • Expansion of
HRD
Education
Primary
Vocational
Education
Training
Reform of
Statist
Educational
System
• Autonomy
Diversity
&
Restructuring
after Economic
Crisis
• IT-centered
Industrial
Upgrading
• Globalization
• Educational
Globalization
• Graduate
School
Education
(BK21)
• National
HRD
• Universalization • University-
of College
Education
Industry
Partnership
Regional Strategy
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Regional Strategy
SMART
MICE
RESEARCH & DVLP.
SMART GRID
GREEN GROWTH
TOURISM
MEDICAL EQUIP
ECO LIFE
NANO
ROBOT
NANO TECH.
BIO TECH.
IT/CT
ROBOT TECH.
FASHION DESIGN
TEXTTILE
CT/Film
High Tech.
INFO. TECH.
CULTURE TECH.
Smart Grid
BIO
BiO TECHNOLOGY
s/W, CONTENTS
MEDICAL CARE
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Outline of Evolution of TVET System
1970s
1960s
The 1st and 2nd
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1990s
1980s
The 3rd and 4th
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5th 6th Eco. +
Social Dev.
1,645
5yr Plan for
New Economy
6,147
10,841
2000s
5 yr Plan
Contd’
24,044
High-Tech Ind./ICT
Light Industry
Heavy Industry
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Supporting System for VT Activities
1) Training Levy System
- Based on the Vocational Training Basic Act enacted in 1976
- To strengthen employers’ roles in vocational training
- The numbers of trainees was determined by Gov’t with limit of 10% of workers
- TL imposed to employer in case of lower result than training target
TL = No. of Difference x Standard Training Cost of the Year
- In-plant VT played a more dominant role than public VT
2) Employment Insurance System
- One of the 4 Major Social Insurance Systems
* Social Insurance : Industrial Disaster, National Pension, Medical, Employment
- Adapted to all enterprises based on the Employment Insurance Act enacted in 1995
- The Insurance Fund supports 3 main tasks
Company
-Employer
-Employee
premium
Insurance
Fund
MOEL
* TL System was abolished in 1997
support
Employment
Stabilization
Voc. Competency
Development
Unemployment
Benefits
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Present Status of Korean TVET
Educational System of Korea
Age School Year
24
22
18
16
VET Sector
MOE
VT
MOEL
VE
KUT
University
18
12
Vocational HS
9
Middle School
12
6
Elementary School
6
VTIs
Junior College
High School
15
Polytechnics
0
Compulsory
Education
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Major Facts on School Education
Classification
No. of Schools
No. of Students
(thousand)
Elementary Sch.
5,829
4,869
Middle Sch.
3,106
1,975
Secondary General HS
1,534
1,485
Vocational HS
691
480
Junior College
146
761
University
177
1,984
Primary
Tertiary
7.Classification of the Korean VT Institutions
Classification
No.
Total
2,777
Public
VTIs
Private
VTIs
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Remarks
Sub-Total
79
Public Org.
40
KOPO, KUT, KEPAD
Local Govern.
8
Seoul, Other Provinces
Min. of Justice
31
Inmates’ Vocational Competency
Sub-Total
2,698
Trg. Corporation
55
Non-profit Corporations
WRD Center
51
Women’s Vocational Competency
MOEL Designated
823
Individual Designated VTIs, KCCI
Others
1,769
[REMARKS] KOPO
KUT
KCCI
KEPAD
WRD
:
:
:
:
:
Companies or Associations, etc.
Korea Polytechnics
Korea University of Technology and Education
Korea Chamber of Commerce and Industry
Korea Employment Promotion Agency for the Disabled
Women Resources Development
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1. Function & Role of Vocational Qualification
1. Function
To be functioned as interface (e.g. bridge) to link between industries and
educational & training institutes
Conditioning Learning
Education & Training
institutes
Structuring Labor Market
Vocational
Qualification
System
To give signals based on demands
from consumers
Industries
To receive demands
for worker’s competencies
2. Korean Qualification System
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Vocational Qualifications
in Korea
National Vocational
Qualifications
National Technical
Qualifications
• National Technical
Qualification Act
• 26 Technical /service
Categories
• 522 certificates
(professional engineer,
engineer, etc.)
National Qualifications
of Non-Technical
Categories
• Separate acts under
related ministries
• 139 qualification items
(lawyer, accountant,
Patent attorney, etc.)
Private Vocational
Qualifications
Authorized Private
Qualifications
Registered Private
Qualifications
• Basic Act on
Qualification
• Basic Act on
Qualification
• Authorized 88
Qualification items
• More than 2,800
certificates
registered on KRIVET,
approved by ministries
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3. Change of NTQ Framework
Past (by 1998)
Professional
Engineer
Present
Master
Craftsman
Professional
Engineer
1st Class
Engineer
2nd Class
Engineer
Master
Craftsman
Engineer
1st Class
Craftsman
2nd Class
Craftsman
Assistant
Craftsman
Technician
Industrial Engineer
Craftsman
4. Korea NQS
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Skills & Technical Areas
Professional Engineer
- 89 trades including mechanics, metal
and construction, etc.
- Engineer +4 yrs of work experience
- Univ. graduates +7 yrs of work
experience
- Jr. college graduates +8 yrs of work
experience
- 11 yrs of work experience
- Craftsman +8 yrs of work experience
Administrative
Service Area
Master Craftsman
- 28 trades including architecture,
telecommunications, aviation, etc.
- Industrial engineers, craftsman +
completion of master craftsmen
courses @ polytechnic colleges
- Industrial engineers +6 yrs of
work experience
- 11 yrs of work experience
Professional
administrative services
- 6 trades including e-commerce
Specialist, job counselor, etc.
Industrial engineer
Engineer
- 111 trades including shipbuilding,
aviation, civil engineering, etc.
- Industrial engineer +1 yr of work
experience
- Craftsman +3 yrs of work experience
- Engineers in other trades
- Univ. graduates + 4 yrs of work
experience
- 124 trades including electronics,
electricity, telecommunications, etc.
- Craftsman +1 yr of work experience
- Industrial engineers in other trades
Junior college graduates
- 2 yrs of work experience
Craftsman
- 196 trades including construction,
textile, agriculture and forestry, etc.
- No restrictions in qualifications
Basic
administrative services
- 18 trades including word
processing, Computer skills,
Hangul, shorthand- writing,
etc.
5. Development of NTQS
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Lots of private qualification items operated by private providers
by 1973
 legislate National Technical Qualification Act, comprehensive act
1960s’
unified National and private Qualification items in technical and
Vocational Qualification
service fields on December 1973
Close linkage between VET and Vocational Qualification at the
level of secondary and higher education
 Provide favors to recognize workplace experiences when examining
eligibility for National Technical Qualification Testing.
 Create multi-skilled engineer qualification at technician level.
1970s’
 Reinforce preferential treatment for certificate holders, example for
Vocational Qualification
employment and permission to start business in specific field.
 Improve governance structure of managing National Technical
Qualification System
 Merge 2 track (technology and technical track) into 1 track;
diminish 8 grades into 5 grades
 Newly make qualification items to meet demands from industry;
1990s’
merge between similar qualification items; eliminate qualification
Vocational Qualification
items not to meet of industry demands
 Introduce authorized private qualification system for qualify control
through activating private qualification market
6. Competency Assessment
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Concept of National Competency Standards(NCS)
NCS : Standardization of competencies required to perform a job
effectively in One’s occupation at the National level through Job Analysis.
Vision
Purpose
HRD reflecting Needs in Industry
Connection with Work-VET-Qualifications utilizing NCS
Industry
Strategy
Career Development Path(CDP)
Job Description
Workers’ Self-Assessment
Checklist of HRM
VET
Qualification
 VET curriculum/program development
 Textbooks & Media Development
 VET Standards development
Base




Labor Market
 Qualification Trade Development
 Testing Standards Development
 Testing Items & Methods
Lifelong Study Society
Workplace
Thank You
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