Disruption in the effective conduct of operations of an individual, system, organisation or
nation. It may result into loss of infrastructure, resources and human lives.
Types of Disaster :
Required to identify and implement some measures in order to reduce the
occurrence or rather impact of disaster, as much as possible.
Identification of Critical Success Factors (CSFs)
Preparedness :
◦ Before disaster hits.
◦ To avoid the gravest possible consequences of a disaster.
Immediate response sub-phase.
Restore sub-phase.
Rehabilitation operations for a long-term perspective.
◦ To retain social and economic conditions.
◦ To reduce destruction level by implementing various laws and mechanisms.
Information and Technology Utilization: Crucial as it directly impacts the speed of
the response at the time of relief operations and enables better coordination between the
Continuous improvement: Process of benchmarking in which processes and
performances of relief operations are evaluated and implemented by comparing it with
the best practices from the previous relief operations.
Effective utilisation of resources:
disparate teams with a common goal.
Strategic Planning: A long-term approach is adopted which allows an organisation to
be prepared for what must be done when an emergency occurs (Long, 1997).
Distribution Strategy: Time and cost are major constraints in emergency relief
operations. For the same, it is quite important to adopt some of the standard distribution
strategies, such as: Direct shipping, Cross-docking, and Centralized warehouse.
Minimisation of loss of human lives: The objective of the disaster relief operation is
always linked to how quickly and conveniently the resources reach the affected people
(Roy et al., 2012).
It depends upon the collaborative working of
Transport and capacity planning: Transportation is not just about transferring
material, it also involves other aspects such as: selecting transport mode, capacity
scheduling, maintenance, and intermodality (Pettit, 2009).
Disaster Assessment: Pre-warning system helps in providing the information regarding
volume and intensity of disaster that could affect the human lives and infrastructure as
Risk Mitigation: Three levels of risk management: Strategic organisational, systematic
operational, and dynamic operational. Organisations should adopt a formalised
approach towards risk mitigation.
Prompt Response: The challenges include physical destruction, which limits logistical
pathways and constrained resources, which limit funding during the disaster.
Restoration: Post-disaster recovery planning can be thought of as providing a blueprint
for the restoration of a community after a disaster occurs. This can be done through long
and short-term strategies.
Identification and Modeling
1.Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) - Depicts hierarchical relationships between
various variables identified and produces structural models from poorly articulated
mental models so as to make it more visible and well- defined.
◦ Development of Structural Self Interaction Matrix (SSIM).
◦ Constructing Initial Reachability Matrix
◦ Constructing Final Reachability Matrix.
◦ Level Partitions.
◦ Creation of ISM based model (Diagraph).
2.MICMAC Analysis - To classify and analyse the critical success factors on the basis of their
driving and dependence power. Positioning of factors within four clusters of a graph.
◦ First cluster : Weak driver power and weak dependence (autonomous).
◦ Second cluster : Weak driver power but strong dependence (dependent).
◦ Third cluster : Strong driving power and also strong dependence (linkage).
◦ Fourth cluster : Strong driving power but weak dependence (independent).
Level partitions
I. Outcome of ISM
II. Outcome of MICMAC : Graphical representation
This research paper has considered only limited number of critical success
factors. In real situation, there can be few other critical success factors that
may impact the HSCM.
Also, the ISM model developed can be statistically validated using
Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) which has a capability to test the
already developed hypothetical model.
The consistency among the expert opinions can also be validated using
Kappa technique.
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