01_Lecture_Presentation_PC

Report
Chapter 1
Biology: Exploring Life
PowerPoint Lectures for
Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, Seventh Edition
Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Lecture by Edward J. Zalisko
Introduction
 Lemurs are primates that
– are known for their distinctive tails, dark eye patches,
and muzzles,
– live in Madagascar, and
– have ancestors who floated to Madagascar about 60
million years ago and diversified in a world
– relatively free of predators and competitors and
– with many different habitats.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 1.0_1
Chapter 1: Big Ideas
Themes in the Study
of Biology
The Process
of Science
Evolution, the Core
Theme of Biology
Biology and
Everyday Life
Figure 1.0_2
THEMES IN THE STUDY
OF BIOLOGY
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
1.1 All forms of life share common properties
 Biology is the scientific study of life.
 Properties of life include
1. Order—the highly ordered structure that typifies life,
2. Reproduction—the ability of organisms to reproduce
their own kind,
3. Growth and development—consistent growth and
development controlled by inherited DNA,
4. Energy processing—the use of chemical energy to
power an organism’s activities and chemical reactions,
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
1.1 All forms of life share common properties
5. Response to the environment—an ability to respond
to environmental stimuli,
6. Regulation—an ability to control an organism’s
internal environment within limits that sustain life, and
7. Evolutionary adaptation—adaptations evolve over
many generations as individuals with traits best suited
to their environments have greater reproductive
success and pass their traits to offspring.
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Video: Sea Horses
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Figure 1.1
(3) Growth and
development
(1) Order
(4) Energy
processing
(2) Reproduction
(6) Regulation
(5) Response to the
environment
(7) Evolutionary adaptation
Figure 1.1_1
Order
Figure 1.1_2
Reproduction
Figure 1.1_3
Growth and development
Figure 1.1_4
Energy processing
Figure 1.1_5
Response to the environment
Figure 1.1_6
Regulation
Figure 1.1_7
Evolutionary adaptation
1.2 In life’s hierarchy of organization, new
properties emerge at each level
 Biological organization unfolds as follows:
– Biosphere—all of the environments on Earth that
support life,
– Ecosystem—all the organisms living in a particular
area and the physical components with which the
organisms interact,
– Community—the entire array of organisms living in a
particular ecosystem,
– Population—all the individuals of a species living in a
specific area,
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
1.2 In life’s hierarchy of organization, new
properties emerge at each level
– Organism—an individual living thing,
– Organ system—several organs that cooperate in a
specific function,
– Organ—a structure that is composed of tissues and
that provides a specific function for the organism,
– Tissues—a group of similar cells that perform a
specific function,
– Cells—the fundamental unit of life,
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
1.2 In life’s hierarchy of organization, new
properties emerge at each level
– Organelle—a membrane-bound structure that performs
a specific function in a cell, and
– Molecule—a cluster of small chemical units called
atoms held together by chemical bonds.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 1.2
Ecosystem:
Forest in
Madagascar
Biosphere
Madagascar
Community:
All organisms in
the forest
Population:
Group of ring-tailed
lemurs
Organism:
Ring-tailed lemur
Spinal cord
Organ system:
Nervous system Brain
Organ:
Brain
Nerve
Tissue:
Nervous tissue
Cell:
Nerve cell
Atom
Nucleus
Organelle:
Nucleus
Molecule:
DNA
Figure 1.2_1
Ecosystem:
Forest in
Madagascar Madagascar
Biosphere
Community:
All organisms in
the forest
Population:
Group of ring-tailed
lemurs
Organism:
Ring-tailed lemur
Figure 1.2_2
Organism:
Ring-tailed lemur
Spinal
cord
Organ system: Brain
Nervous system
Organ:
Brain
Nerve
Tissue:
Nervous tissue
Atom
Cell:
Nerve cell
Nucleus
Organelle:
Nucleus
Molecule:
DNA
Figure 1.2_3
Biosphere
Figure 1.2_4
Community:
All organisms in the forest
Figure 1.2_5
Organisms:
Ring-tailed lemur
Figure 1.2_6
Atom
Molecule: DNA
1.2 In life’s hierarchy of organization, new
properties emerge at each level
 Emergent properties are
– new properties that arise in each step upward in the
hierarchy of life,
– from the arrangement and interactions among
component parts.
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1.3 Cells are the structural and functional units
of life
 Cells are the level at which the properties of life
emerge.
 A cell can
– regulate its internal environment,
– take in and use energy,
– respond to its environment,
– develop and maintain its complex organization, and
– give rise to new cells.
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1.3 Cells are the structural and functional units
of life
 All cells
– are enclosed by a membrane that regulates the
passage of materials between the cell and its
surroundings and
– use DNA as their genetic information.
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1.3 Cells are the structural and functional units
of life
 There are two basic types of cells.
1. Prokaryotic cells
– were the first to evolve,
– are simpler, and
– are usually smaller than eukaryotic cells.
2. Eukaryotic cells
– contain membrane-enclosed organelles, including a nucleus
containing DNA, and
– are found in plants, animals, and fungi.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 1.3
Eukaryotic cell
DNA
(no nucleus)
Prokaryotic
cell
Membrane
Organelles
Nucleus
(membraneenclosed)
DNA (throughout
nucleus)
1.3 Cells are the structural and functional units
of life
 Systems biology models the complex interactions
of biological systems, ranging
– from the functioning of the biosphere
– to the complex molecular machinery of a cell.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
1.3 Cells are the structural and functional units
of life
 Cells illustrate another theme in biology: the
correlation of structure and function.
 Structure is related to function at all levels of
biological organization.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
1.4 Living organisms interact with their
environment, exchanging matter and energy
 Living organisms interact with their environments,
which include
– other organisms and
– physical factors.
 In most ecosystems
– plants are the producers that provide the food,
– consumers eat plants and other animals, and
– decomposers act as recyclers, changing complex
matter into simpler mineral nutrients.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
1.4 Living organisms interact with their
environment, exchanging matter and energy
 The dynamics of ecosystems include two major
processes:
1. The recycling of chemical nutrients from the atmosphere
and soil through producers, consumers, and
decomposers back to the environment.
2. The one-way flow of energy through an ecosystem,
entering as sunlight, converted to chemical energy by
producers, passed on to consumers, and exiting as heat.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 1.4
Ecosystem
O2
O2
Sunlight
Heat
Producers
(such as
plants)
Consumers
(such as
animals)
Chemical energy
(food)
CO2
Water and minerals
taken up by tree roots
CO2
Cycling of
chemical nutrients
Decomposers
(in soil)
Figure 1.4_1
Ecosystem
O2
O2
Sunlight
Heat
Producers
(such as
plants)
Consumers
(such as
animals)
Chemical energy
(food)
CO2
Water and minerals
taken up by tree roots
CO2
Cycling of
chemical nutrients
Decomposers
(in soil)
Figure 1.4_2
EVOLUTION, THE CORE
THEME OF BIOLOGY
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
1.5 The unity of life is based on DNA and a
common genetic code
 All cells have DNA, the chemical substance of
genes.
 Genes
– are the unit of inheritance that transmits information
from parents to offspring,
– are grouped into very long DNA molecules called
chromosomes, and
– control the activities of a cell.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
1.5 The unity of life is based on DNA and a
common genetic code
 A species’ genes are coded in the sequences of
the four building blocks making up DNA’s double
helix.
– All forms of life use essentially the same code to
translate the information stored in DNA into proteins.
– The diversity of life arises from differences in DNA
sequences.
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Figure 1.5
A
G
C
C
A
T
G
T
A
C
G
T
A
T
A
C
G
G
T
C
1.6 The diversity of life can be arranged into
three domains
 We can think of biology’s enormous scope as
having two dimensions.
1. The “vertical” dimension is the size scale that stretches
from molecules to the biosphere.
2. The “horizontal” dimension spans across the great
diversity of organisms existing now and over the long
history of life on Earth.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
1.6 The diversity of life can be arranged into
three domains
 Diversity is the hallmark of life.
– Biologists have identified about 1.8 million species.
– Estimates of the actual number of species ranges from
10 to 100 million.
 Taxonomy names species and classifies them into
a system of broader groups.
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1.6 The diversity of life can be arranged into
three domains
 The diversity of life can be arranged into three
domains.
1. Bacteria are the most diverse and widespread
prokaryotes.
2. Archaea are prokaryotes that often live in Earth’s extreme
environments.
3. Eukarya have eukaryotic cells and include
– single-celled protists and
– multicellular fungi, animals, and plants.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 1.6
Domain Bacteria
Domain Eukarya
Bacteria
Domain Archaea
Protists
(multiple kingdoms)
Kingdom Plantae
Kingdom Fungi
Kingdom Animalia
Archaea
Figure 1.6_1
Domain Bacteria
Bacteria
Figure 1.6_2
Domain Archaea
Archaea
Figure 1.6_3
Domain Eukarya
Protists
(multiple kingdoms)
Kingdom Plantae
Kingdom Fungi
Kingdom Animalia
Figure 1.6_4
Protists
(multiple kingdoms)
Figure 1.6_5
Kingdom Plantae
Figure 1.6_6
Kingdom Fungi
Figure 1.6_7
Kingdom Animalia
1.7 Evolution explains the unity and diversity of
life
 The history of life, as documented by fossils, is a
saga of a changing Earth
– billions of years old and
– inhabited by an evolving cast of life forms.
 Evolution accounts for life’s dual nature of
– kinship and
– diversity.
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Figure 1.7A
Figure 1.7B
1.7 Evolution explains the unity and diversity of
life
 In 1859, Charles Darwin published the book On the
Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection,
which articulated two main points.
1. A large amount of evidence supports the idea of
evolution, that species living today are descendants of
ancestral species in what Darwin called “descent with
modification.”
2. Natural selection is a mechanism for evolution.
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Video: Galápagos Island Overview
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Video: Galápagos Sea Lion
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Video: Galápagos Marine Iguana
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Video: Galápagos Tortoise
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1.7 Evolution explains the unity and diversity of
life
 Natural selection was inferred by connecting two
observations.
1. Individuals in a population vary in their traits, many of
which are passed on from parents to offspring.
2. A population can produce far more offspring than the
environment can support.
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Video: Blue-footed Boobies Courtship Ritual
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Video: Albatross Courtship Ritual
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Video: Soaring Hawk
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Figure 1.7C
1 Population with varied inherited traits
2 Elimination of individuals with certain traits
3 Reproduction of survivors
1.7 Evolution explains the unity and diversity of
life
 From these observations, Darwin inferred that
– those individuals with heritable traits best suited to the
environment are more likely to survive and reproduce
than less well-suited individuals,
– as a result of this unequal reproductive success over
many generations, an increasing proportion of
individuals will have the advantageous traits, and
– the result will be evolutionary adaptation, the
accumulation of favorable traits in a population over
time.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 1.7D
Ground pangolin
Killer whale
Figure 1.7D_1
Ground pangolin
Figure 1.7D_2
Killer whale
THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE
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1.8 Scientific inquiry is used to ask and answer
questions about nature
 The word science is derived from a Latin verb
meaning “to know.” Science is a way of knowing.
 Scientists
– use inductive reasoning to draw general conclusions
from many observations and
– deductive reasoning to come up with ways to test a
hypothesis, a proposed explanation for a set of
observations.The logic flows from general premises to
the specific results we should expect if the premises are
true.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
1.8 Scientific inquiry is used to ask and answer
questions about nature
 How is a theory different from a hypothesis? A
scientific theory is
– much broader in scope than a hypothesis,
– usually general enough to generate many new, specific
hypotheses, which can then be tested, and
– supported by a large and usually growing body of
evidence.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 1.8
1.9 Scientists form and test hypotheses and share
their results
 We solve everyday problems by using hypotheses.
– A common example would be the reasoning we use to
answer the question, “Why doesn’t a flashlight work?”
– Using deductive reasoning we realize that the problem
is either (1) the bulb or (2) the batteries.
– Further, a hypothesis must be
– testable and
– falsifiable.
– In this example, two hypotheses are tested.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 1.9A_s1
Observation
Question
Hypothesis 1:
Dead batteries
Hypothesis 2:
Burned-out bulb
Figure 1.9A_s2
Observation
Question
Hypothesis 1:
Dead batteries
Hypothesis 2:
Burned-out bulb
Prediction:
Replacing batteries
will fix problem.
Prediction:
Replacing bulb
will fix problem.
Experiment:
Experiment:
Test prediction by
replacing batteries.
Test prediction by
replacing bulb.
Figure 1.9A_s3
Observation
Question
Hypothesis 1:
Dead batteries
Hypothesis 2:
Burned-out bulb
Prediction:
Replacing batteries
will fix problem.
Prediction:
Replacing bulb
will fix problem.
Experiment:
Experiment:
Test prediction by
replacing batteries.
Test prediction by
replacing bulb.
Test falsifies
hypothesis. Revise
hypothesis or
pose new one.
Test does not
falsify hypothesis.
Make additional
predictions and
test them.
1.9 Scientists form and test hypotheses and share
their results
 An actual research project demonstrates the
process of science.
 Scientists began with a set of observations and
generalizations that
– poisonous animals are brightly colored and
– imposters resemble poisonous species but are actually
harmless.
 They then tested the hypothesis that mimics
benefit because predators confuse them with the
harmful species.
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1.9 Scientists form and test hypotheses and share
their results
 The scientists conducted a controlled
experiment, comparing
– an experimental group consisting of artificial king
snakes and
– a control group consisting of artificial brown snakes.
– The groups differed only by one factor, the coloration of
the artificial snakes.
– The data fit the key prediction of the mimicry
hypothesis.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 1.9B
Figure 1.9C
Figure 1.9D
Figure 1.9D_1
Figure 1.9D_2
Figure 1.9E
Percent of total attacks
on artificial snakes
100
84%
83%
Artificial
king snakes
80
Artificial
brown snakes
60
40
20
17%
16%
0
Coral snakes
absent
Coral snakes
present
1.9 Scientists form and test hypotheses and share
their results
 Science is a social activity with most scientists
working in teams.
 Scientists share information in many ways.
 Science seeks natural causes for natural
phenomena.
– The scope of science is limited to the study of structures
and processes that we can directly observe and measure.
– Hypotheses about supernatural forces or explanations are
outside the bounds of science, because they generate
hypotheses that cannot be tested by science.
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BIOLOGY AND EVERYDAY LIFE
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
1.10 CONNECTION: Biology, technology, and
society are connected in important ways
 Many issues facing society are related to biology.
Most involve our expanding technology.
 The basic goals of science and technology differ.
– The goal of science is to understand natural phenomena.
– The goal of technology is to apply scientific knowledge
for some specific purpose.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
1.10 CONNECTION: Biology, technology, and
society are connected in important ways
 Although their goals differ, science and technology
are interdependent.
– Technological advances stem from scientific research.
– Research benefits from new technologies.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 1.10
1.11 EVOLUTION CONNECTION: Evolution is
connected to our everyday lives
 Evolution is a core theme of biology.
 Evolutionary theory is useful in
– medicine,
– agriculture,
– forensics, and
– conservation.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
1.11 EVOLUTION CONNECTION: Evolution is
connected to our everyday lives
 Human-caused environmental changes are powerful
selective forces that affect the evolution of many
species, including
– antibiotic-resistant bacteria,
– pesticide-resistant pests,
– endangered species, and
– increasing rates of extinction.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
You should now be able to
1. Describe seven properties common to all life.
2. Describe the levels of biological organization from
molecules to the biosphere, noting the interrelationships
between levels.
3. Define the concept of emergent properties and describe
an example of it.
4. Explain why cells are a special level in biological
organization. Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
5. Compare the dynamics of nutrients and energy in an
ecosystem.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
You should now be able to
6. Explain how DNA encodes a cell’s information.
7. Compare the three domains of life.
8. Describe the process and products of natural
selection. Explain why individuals cannot evolve.
9. Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative data.
10. Compare the definitions and use of inductive and
deductive reasoning in scientific investigations.
11. Distinguish between a scientific theory and a
hypothesis.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
You should now be able to
12. Distinguish between the scientific definition and
common use of the word theory.
13. Describe the structure of a controlled experiment and
give an example.
14. Compare the goals of science and technology.
Explain why an understanding of science is essential
to our lives.
15. Explain how evolution impacts the lives of all
humans.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 1.UN01
O2
O2
Sunlight
Heat
Producers
(such as
plants)
Consumers
(such as
animals)
Chemical energy
(food)
CO2
Water and minerals
taken up by tree roots
CO2
Cycling of
chemical nutrients
Decomposers
(in soil)
Figure 1.UN02
Figure 1.UN03
Observations
Inferences
Heritable
variations
Natural selection:
Unequal reproductive
success leads to
evolution of adaptations
in populations.
Overproduction
of offspring
Figure 1.UN04
Biology
is the study of
(a)
has changed
through the process of
(b)
mechanism is
depends on
accounts
for
DNA
(genetic code)
(c)
leads to
codes for
diversity of life
seen in
(e)
seen in
variations in
cells as basic
units of life
accounts
for
is evidence
of
(d)
seen in
common properties
of living organisms
Figure 1.UN05
Average time to
complete maze (min)
25
20
15
10
No reward
Food reward
5
0
0
1
2
3
Day
4
5
6

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