BIO-FIBRE REINFORCED COMPOSITES

Report
BIO-FIBRE REINFORCED
COMPOSITES
Tadeusz Majewski
Department of Industrial and
Mechanical Engineering
Every year end-of life vehicles in the Community generate
between 8 and 9 million tonnes of waste, which must be
managed correctly.
DERICITIVE 2000/53/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT
AND OF THE COUNCIL
on end-of life vehicles
This Directive should cover vehicles and end-of live vehicles, including their
components and materials, as well as spare and replacement parts, without
prejudice to safe standards, air emission and noise control.
12. The recycling of all plastics from end-of life vehicles should be
continuously improved. The Commission is currently examining the
environmental impacts of PVC. The Commission will, on the basis of this
work, make proposals as appropriate as to the use of PVC including
considerations for vehicles.
The legislation provides for the creation of collection schemes where
consumers return their used e-waste free of charge.
The objective of these schemes is to increase the recycling and/or re-use of
such products.
It also requires heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, and hexavalent
chromium and flame retardants such as polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) or
polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) to be substituted by safer alternatives.
Article 7 -
2000L0053-EN-01.07.2005
Reuse and recovery
2(a) no later than 1 January 2006, for all end-of life vehicles, the reuse and
recovery shall be increased to a minimum of 85 % by an average weight per
vehicle and year. Within the same time limit the reuse and recycling shall be
increased to a minimum of 80 % by an average weight per vehicle and year;
for vehicles produced before 1 January 1980, Member States may lay down
lower targets, but not lower than 75 % for reuse and recovery and not lower
than 70 % for reuse and recycling.
2(b) no later than 1 January 2015, for all end-of life vehicles, the reuse and
recovery shall be increased to a minimum of 95 % by an average weight per
vehicle and year. Within the same time limit, the re-use and recycling shall be
increased to a minimum of 85 % by an average weight per vehicle and year.
Universität Kassel
Institut für Werkstofftechnik Kunststoff- und Recyclingtechnik
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Andrzej K. Bledzki [[email protected]]
Publications Wood and Natural Fibre Composites
(1996 – 2010 altogether > 60 publications)
*650 citations till 2010 (only in 2009: 121 citations, IF 16,818)
Composites reinforced with cellulose based fibers
Progress in Polymer Science 24 (1999) 2, 221- 274,
A.K. Bledzki, J. Gassan
*263 citations till 2010 (IF 1,187)
Properties and modification methods for vegetable fibers for natural fiber composites
Journal of Applied Polymer Science 59 (1996) 1329-1336
A.K. Bledzki, S. Reihmane, J. Gassan
*143 citations till 2010 (IF 1,951)
The influence of fiber surface treatment on the mechanical properties
of jute-polypropylene-composites
Composites 28 A (1997) 1001-1005
J. Gassan, A.K. Bledzki
Raw materials as cellulose fibers (abaca, jute, hemp, sisal, kenaf,
cotton), soft or hard wood fibers are widely used in an industry.
They have very interesting field of applications because of their
promising properties.
These materials need further investigation to improve their
properties and increase their applications. Some of their drawbacks
can be improved in further research.
The parts from the composite materials are produced by injection
moulding or extrusion.
Automotive industry is interested in new materials, because
according to new regulations cars should be partially
decomposable or recyclable.
Domestic application of WPC
Automotive applications
Mercedes-Benz Class S with environmental certificate
Components made from different bio fibre reinforced composites
Under floor protection trim of Mercedes A class made from banana fibre
reinforced composites (Source: DaimlerChrysler Awarded for Banana Fibre
Use in Mercedes A Class
http://www.netcomposites.com/news.asp?2888)
Automotive interior components made from wood fibre reinforced composites
(Source: Bledzki et al., Cars from Bio-Fibres, Macromolecular Materials and
Engineering, 2006, 291, 449-457)
Front side
Back side with air bag sheet
Automotive instrumental panel with integrated airbag flap
made from bio-fibre reinforced composites (Source:
Bledzki et al., Cars from Bio-Fibres, Macromolecular
Materials and Engineering, 2006, 291, 449-457)
Wood Plastic Composites (WPC) is widely used in automotive and domestic
industry. With addition of natural fibers the composite materials obtain better
properties, they are cheaper and friendly for the environment.
Cellulose fibers - abaca, jute, hemp, sisal, kenaf, cotton, soft or hard wood fibers
The parts from the composite materials are produced by injection moulding or
extrusion.
Natural fibers, thanks to their lightweight, the strength and the low cost may
replace artificial/mineral (glass or coal) fillers in many parts.
•PROPERTIES OF PARTS MADE OF
WPC:
•Small weight,
•Small use of energy during production,
•Good mechanical properties,
•Good acoustic isolation,
•Renewable materials.
Nomenclature
WPC- Woof Fiber Composite
PP575 – Polypropylen
PAN – Polyacrylnitril
PET - Polyethylenterephthalat
W - Softwood
Cordenka – Man made cellulose fiber
%wt –percentage weight of fiber
Mat compression moulding:: Fibrowood (Johnson Controls)
Wood fibre mat
with resin
Substrate ready for
covering process
Compression molding in a
tempered mold,
demolding
Bast Fibres with Thermosetting Binder
Mat compression
moulding:
NF-EP
Natural fibre
mat
Sliding of the
EP resin
Cutting
Drying
Deflector
Mat with resin
Mixing pipe
Compression molding
Process steps
 In-Line covering of NF-mat with Epoxy Resin
 NF-mat is pressed in the final shape in a Hot pressing tool
 Part is cut in its final shape
Substrate
Bast Fibres with Thermosetting Binder
Carrier
Carrier vacuum covered
with Foam-Foil
Complete Door Panel
Exterior Applications: 1st Exterior Natural Fibre Application
A-Class Under-floor (DaimlerChrysler/Rieter)
technology
Under-floor cover A-Class
Functional safeguard
Extrusion
WPC Profiles
Mechanical properties
Laboratory scale testing device for measuring E
1.0
X1
X: 0.5925
Y: 0.102534
Real, V
500.0m
0
-500.0m
-1.0
200.0m
400.0m
sec
600.0m
800.0m
1.0
30 52
1 (l  e)4  4(l  e)3 l  6(l  e)2 l 2 2
l 3
E [
mb  (
) ma ]( ) (f )2 106 [GPa]
b 405
2
h
3l 4
E
 3%
E
E GPa
1.2
6
1
5
0.8
4
0.6
3
0.4
2
1
0
o%
40%
50%
0.2
0
20 °
50°
80°
110°
E GPa
Elastic modulus for WPC and its changing with temperature
4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
Elastic modulus for different specimens
WPC- Woof Fiber Composite
PP575 – Polypropylen
PAN – Polyacrylnitril
PET - Polyethylenterephthalat
W - Softwood
Cordenka – Man made cellulose fiber
%wt –percentage weight of fiber
WPC- Woof Fiber Composite
PAN – Polyacrylnitril
5
4.5
4
3.5
E[GPa]
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
PP40W
1
The difference between the
results obtained from my
laboratory scale testing device
for the same type of material
were no greater than 5 %
PP40PAN
2
3
PP20W20PAN
4
PP30RC
Comparison E from different methods
First bar – tension,
second bar – bending,
third bar – DMA (Dynamic Measurement Analyzer )
fourth bar –testing device
Shear modulus - G
Testing device
1
3
My testing device:
2
4
The relative error of the
storage modulus about 5%
Laboratory stands for measuring the shear
modulus G
Development of Bioplastics Market
Thank you for your attention
Agradecemos su participación y asistencia
Danke schön
Tadeusz Majewski, UDLAP
Foro de Innovación 2011
INNOVATIONFORUM11
The directive of European Parliament and of the Council
of 18 September 20007 organized
EUROPEAN COMMISSION
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adopted by the European Parliament and the Council on 18 September 2000,
also ... The reuse, recovery and recycling of end-of-life vehicles is encouraged ...
are allowed to transpose some of its soft-law provisions by means of
agreements ...

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