Please check, just in case… Announcements 1. Please make an appointment with me to talk about assignments if you wish. Please let me know days and time you are available and I’ll give you my next available appointment. 2. Let’s assign tests tonight. Quick questions, quandaries, concerns or comments? APA Tip of the Day: Type Style “The preferred typeface for APA publications is Times New Roman, with 12-point font size. A serif typeface, ‘with short lines projecting from the top or the bottom of a mainstroke of a letter’ (Chicago Manual of Style, 2003, p. 837), is preferred for text because it improves readability and reduces eye fatigue” (APA, 2010, pp. 228-229). APA Example Serif Type Style examples: • Times New Roman • Courier Sans Serif Type Style examples: • Arial • Century Gothic Topic: Task Analysis September 17, 2014 Definition of Task Analysis It is the process of breaking down a skill or activity into a set of discrete steps that you can then teach to an individual one-by-one (forward or backward chaining). You can then assess an individual’s performance on each step of the task, either as done or not done (check list) or by the type of prompting or cueing required (rating scale). Chaining: “teaching students to perform a sequence of functionally related responses in an approximate or exact order to complete a routine or task.” (Snell & Brown, 2000, p. 163) Applying Task Analysis 1. Conduct a pre-test. 2. Determine general instructional procedures. 3. Develop data collection forms. From: The Syracuse Community-Referenced Curriculum Guide, Ford, et al., 1989 Step 1: Pre-test •Establish baseline performance. •Determine which skills to target for instruction. •Identify necessary adaptations. •Identify types of needed instructional prompts. Example of Pre-Test Skill Area: Lunch line 1. Observe several students going through the lunch line to identify necessary behaviors and skills. 2. Observe your target student going through lunch line. 3. Note discrepancies between your student’s performance and the behaviors/skills of “doing lunch line.” Step 2: General instructional procedures a) Structural information: (location, students, time, materials) and b) Procedures: (prep, review, intro, participation, closure). Step 3: Data Collection Forms a) Identify specific performance targets, b) Determine appropriate instructional prompts. What is an “instructional prompt”? Student: Date: Targets Activity: Observer: Planned Prompts 1. Look toward gesture carts 2. Scan shelves for items 3. Locate & reach for item 4. Locate open register Model full physical verbal Prompt used? MVG MVG MVG MVG MVG PP FP PP FP PP FP PP FP PP FP MVG MVG MVG MVG MVG PP FP PP FP PP FP PP FP PP FP MVG MVG MVG MVG MVG PP FP PP FP PP FP PP FP PP FP MVG MVG MVG MVG MVG PP FP PP FP PP FP PP FP PP FP Student: Date: Activity: Observer: Skill Inventory +/ What did student do? - Decision 1. Enter store + Entered w/ VP Fade VP 2. Locate/get cart. - Passed carts Teach to look 3. Take out shopping materials (picture cards). + With VP Fade VP 4. Search for/get items. - Searched only at eye level Teach scanning 5. Prepare to check out + Went to closed register 6. Pay cashier. + Used money envelope 7. Exit store. - W/ VP Teach visual cues Fade VP Cueing, Prompting, & Fading Quick Partner Brainstorm: 1. Identify all of the natural cues that you can think of that you use in your activities of daily living. 2. What sort of “fail safes” do you rely on to remind you when you’ve forgotten something. Cueing vs. Prompting Cues: Natural and/or routine clues that guide behavior. • Environmental • Physical • Social Prompts: Reminders when an individual has not taken advantage of natural cues. • • • • Physical Gestural Verbal Modeling Fading: A gradual reduction in reinforcement or prompting. Examples: • Indirect vs. Direct Verbal Cues • Increase Time Between Prompts • Decrease Physical Proximity How does criterionreferenced assessment fit into making decisions about fading prompts? How do the results of task analysis inform our instruction? Important Points: 1. Be aware of and capitalize on natural cues. 2. Implement cueing, prompting, and fading systems strategically and consistently. 3. Plan how to fade a system of prompting, understanding that some individuals will always need some amount of planned prompting. Quick Write: How often do you use task analysis in your teaching/intervention practice? To what extent to you think you could either improve or expand your use of task analysis? How so? Field trip! In small groups (4 or less) choose a functional task that you can observe a group member performing here on campus (e.g. washing hands, buying coffee, checking out a book). Then, as a group, watch your victim perform the activity and write down all of the steps for the skill inventory. Return by 6:00 sharp! Whole Group Discussion • What supplementary support and/or aids would someone with a physical or sensory disability need to accomplish your task? • What might be appropriate types of prompts that you could integrate into teaching this skill/activity? • In what ways could new technologies make data collection easier? Please take a minute for the minute paper. And don’t forget to turn your phone back on.