Women in Law Enforcemner-Pakistan

Report
Women in Law EnforcementChallenges and Opportunities
By
Iftikhar Ahmed, PSP
Inspector General Police (Rtd)
Executive Director
Centre for Rule of Law and Police Studies(CRPS) Islamabad,
Pakistan
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Introduction
• Traditional female role in society--- of help and assistance for Jobs
like teaching, nursing, office work etc
• First law enforcement role as “women guards in women prisons’’ in
19th century
• Role of social movements in attracting women towards law
enforcement
• Female introduction in law enforcement in the sub continent before
partition
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Pakistan Experience
• Socio-cultural and religious beliefs
• Democracy as a vehicle for women emancipation and gender
mainstreaming
• Introduction of women in law enforcement
Police : Women – alone Police Stations
Motorway Police
Immigration
Airport Security Force (ASF)
Anti Narcotics Force (ANF)
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Police
• First female officers in police in 50’s...... Till 90’s female presence
scattered and highly inadequate
• First Women Police Station in 1994. So far 11 such police stations in
the country ( Sindh 5, Punjab 3, KPK 2, Islamabad 1 )
• Women officers not performing hard core policing functions like
investigation, arrest, raids, interrogation
• Female officers strength is approx 4500 in all LEAs across the
country of whom over 80% are in the rank of Constable
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Performance of the 1st Women
Police Station
• Registered 60 cases when established in 1994 and arrested 39
female and 52 male accused persons
• This number dropped to just ONE (1) case and arrest of 8 female
accused in 2006
• In 2011, these numbers have again risen to 20 cases and 35 female
arrests.
• Average annual registration over last 18 years is 20 cases, which is
not even 2 cases a month.
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Immigration, Airport Security Force
and the Motorway Police
• Female officers in FIA/Immigration are 230 compared to 1854 male
officers . Mostly at Immigration counters and none doing
investigation work
• The Airport Security Force (ASF) is 8939 personnel, of which only
645 are female. Majority ; i.e. 413 are in the rank of Constable and
only 02 are in the rank of Dy. Director
• The Motorway Police has 104 female officers against 3946 male
officers
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Problem of Female Drug Users
• According to a study conducted of 4632 female drug users (FDUs )
in 13 cities, the highest number (1213 ) was in Karachi, followed by
Lahore (593 ) and Faisalabad (511 ). The minimum number of drug
users was reported in Larkana (44).
• 72% of the FDUs were between ages of 21 to 40, 66% illiterate, 60%
married. Drug of choice- charas, bhang, heroin and synthetic drugs.
Only 1.5% were IDUs.
• Out of the 1391 FDUs interviewed, 60 (4.3% ) were arrested for drug
use/pushing. 22 admitted using drugs in jail.
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Conviction of Female Accused
From Jan 2003 to Oct 2011
Year
karachi
Lahore
7
1
9
1
-
4
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
1st to 15 Oct,
2011
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Total:-
Peshawar Quetta
Rwp
Total:-
-
6
23
11
-
8
20
-
18
-
19
41
6
-
17
1
3
27
10
22
12
-
7
51
1
8
12
-
42
63
10
8
10
-
18
46
5
17
8
-
25
55
7
6
3
2
13
31
51
62
100
3
141
357
Female Officers in ANF
• ANF has approximately 3000 personnel in five (5) Regional
Directorates and 23 Police Stations in the country
• Against the 43 sanctioned posts of female officers, only 15 available
besides the 02 on deputation. All in the rank of constable.
• At an average, 40 females have been convicted on drug charges
annually over the last 9 years.
• No female investigating officer deals with the drug related
issues/cases registered against the female offenders.
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Challenges
• Socio-cultural and religious gender biases confine the role of
women– Such biases are not only in men, these also exist in the
women themselves
• Women law enforcement officers lack authority in comparison to
their male counterparts
• Women PSs merely “ holding or detention areas ” . Registration of
cases not allowed in some of these Police Stations.
• Failure of female officers to create good impression on citizens as
serious law enforcement individuals
• Hesitation on part of female officers to accept challenges of field
assignments
continued.....
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Challenges
• No incentives, motivation or rewards. Credit of genuine work taken
by the male officers
• Serious issues pertaining to availability of appropriate/adequate
willing female candidates for law enforcement jobs
• Boarding, lodging and transportation are serious discouraging
issues
• Reporting and accountability of sexual harassment
• Inadequate representation of women at the policy and decision
making levels to introduce structural changes
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Opportunities
• Democratic process and open media provides a great opportunity to
break the socio-cultural and religious attitudes/taboos against
women empowerment, both to the state and the civil society
• Law Enforcement Agencies can deal with gender bias through
sustained media campaigns to encourage women not only to join
but to play effective role in law enforcement
• College and university campuses could be targeted by serving female
officers to become role models and mentors for the potential
recruits
• Better and improved training of female officers will boost their
confidence and enhance their perception not only in the eyes of the
public but also in their own eyes
continued.....
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Opportunities
• Female officers role in field assignments like patrolling, raids,
arrests, investigation and prosecution can be enhanced to make
them stand side by side with their male colleagues in the public eyes
• Investigation by female officers can enhance the comfort level of the
female victims, reduce the human rights violations and enhance the
positive image of the organization
• The natural advantage of being good communicators can be
capitalized particularly where individuals need to be talked about in
tense situations
• The government can induct more women in the governance
structures and policy making levels of law enforcement
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Any Questions Please
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