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Corporate Valuation and Financing Exercises Session 3 «Valuing levered and companies, the wacc» Laurent Frisque - [email protected] Steve Plasman – [email protected] Q1 Modigliani Miller I Q1: To value: Freshwater Corp. • No taxes and perfectly efficient markets. • Currently the company is not levered all. • EBIT per year: 500.000 $ and should remain the same perpetually. • The cost of equity of the company is worth 12% =Re. In this case what is the value of the company? Q1 Modigliani Miller I Q1: In this case what is the value of the company? • The cost of equity of the company is worth 12% =Re=Ra (no leverage). Vunlevered = EBT / Ra (no Interests) = 500.000 / 12% = 4.166.667 Q1 Modigliani Miller I Q1: To value: Freshwater Corp. • Issue a perpetual debt for which you pay 30.000$, to buy back shares. • Interest each year (the borrowing rate of the company is 3%) What would then be the market value of the company? Interests = 30.000 Rd = 3% D = 1.000.000 Vu E = = 4.166.667 3.166.667 (E + D = Vu) Q1 Modigliani Miller I Q1: And of ra , the wacc, and re? Ra = 12% Unchanged by definition Re*E Re = Ra*Vu - Rd*D = (Ra*Vu - Rd*D)/ E = 14,84% Or Re = (EBT – I) / E Wacc = 12% (because NO taxes) Q2 Valuing levered Companies in a world with taxes Q2: Bobland, not a perfect world: Corporate tax rates: 25% (Tc) • Same capital structure and revenues as in Tongoland. What is the value of the levered company? (Vl) EBIT = EBIT (1-Tc) = Vunlevered 500.000 (Unlevered) 375.000 = EBIT (1-Tc) / Ra = 375.000 / 12% = 3.125.000 Interests = 30.000 Rd = 3% D = I/Rd = 1.000.000 Tax Shield = Tc*D = 250.000 V levered = Vu + Tax Shield = 3.375.000 Q2 Valuing levered Companies in a world with taxes Q2: And of ra, the wacc, and re? Ra = 12% Unchanged by definition Wacc = EBIT * (1-Tc) / VL = 11,11% Atlernative: L = D/VL Wacc = Ra * (1 – Tc*L) E = VL – D = 2.375.000 Net Earnings = (EBIT-I) * (1-Tc) Re = Net Earnings / E = 14,84% Atlernative: Re = Ra + (Ra – Rd) * (1-Tc)* D/E Q3 Marginal versus Average Tax RateValuing Q3: The subsidiary has an EBIT of 250.000$. The tax structure in Sloland: • • • the first 100.000$ are tax exempt the following 100.000$ taxed at 20% any amount above that is taxed at 30%. Issue a perpetual debt 75000$ to benefit from the tax shield. Skeptical with an average tax rate. Cost of debt (= risk free rate: 4%), he values the tax shield at 10.500$ Hardly interesting in view of the costs associated with a debt issue. A. Is he right? B. What would have been the tax shield if the debt had been reimbursed after two years? Q3 Marginal versus Average Tax RateValuing Q3: A. Is he right? Issue a perpetual debt worth 75000$ to benefit from the tax shield • Average tax rate = 14% • D = 75.000 PV Tax Shield = D * Average Tax Rate = 10.500 EBIT = 250.000 Interest payment = 75.000 * 4% = 3.000 Tax saving = 900 (perpetual) PV Tax saving = 22.500 Q3 Marginal versus Average Tax RateValuing Q3: B. What would have been the tax shield if the debt had been reimbursed after two years? Q4 Leveraging and deleveraging Betas, Company valuation using the WACC Q 4: In 2010, Acquisition of Wellstream. Competitors Technip and Prysmian. Risk Higher: GE’s WACC is not appropriate to value this acquisition. You get following data: Comparison • • • • • • Be D/E P/B D/ Market Cap Tax rate 1-T GE 1,16 1,67 2,75 61% 15% 85% WSM 1,30 1,0 7 14% 25% 75% Technip 1,35 0 1,85 0% 33% 67% Prysmian 1,32 0,45 3 15% 30% 70% Target D/E for Wellstream acquisition: 0.4 Wellstream’s expected real asset cash-flows next year: 50 million $ Growth rate of Wellstream’s cash-flows: 1.5% per year Marginal corporate tax rate: 20% Discount rate on debt: 2% (riskless rate) Expected return of the market portfolio: 7% Q4 Leveraging and deleveraging Betas, Company valuation using the WACC • a) Estimate Wellstream’ beta of operating assets from the peers. You overheard Technip has also another division, so you may have to eliminate it. Q4 Leveraging and deleveraging Betas, Company valuation using the WACC • b) Compute the WACC for the Wellstream’s acquisition. WACC = Re *E/VL + Rd *(1-Tc)*D/VL • c) Determine the value of this acquisition with the WACC computed in b), knowing that Wellstreams’s debt is valued at 50 million $. MARKET VALUE of E !! Q4 Leveraging and deleveraging Betas, Company valuation using the WACC • d) Determine the value of Wellstream with GE’s WACC. • e) Apply the adjusted present value method to value Welstream’s acquisition Q5 APV and wacc • • • • • • • • • • Analyse the interest of a new project. The following data are available. Initial investment of 1 million € in year 0 Additional EBIT of 450.000€ during 5 years (years 1 to 5). After year 5 there will be no more sales WCR constant for the whole project. No depreciation Target leverage ratio of 50% Ra 10% rd= rf= 5% Marginal corporate tax rate Tc = 30%. Q5 APV and wacc A. Should the company launch the project? • Base Case Vu - I B. What is the value of the wacc? Q5 APV and wacc B. What is the value of the wacc? • Target leverage ratio L = D/ V constant • V = PV of remaining after tax cash flow • wacc Miles-Ezzel = Ra - L*Tc*Rd*(1+Ra)/(1+Rd) C. How would the value of the project change if the company used a continuous rebalancing approach? • Debt rebalanced continously Dt = L *VLt • wacc Harris Pringle = Ra - Rd*Tc*L • ! Uncertainty about next Tax shield – • ! Riskier