Chapter 8

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Chapter 8
Advanced SQL
Database Systems:
Design, Implementation, and Management,
Seventh Edition, Rob and Coronel
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In this chapter, you will learn:
• About the relational set operators UNION,
UNION ALL, INTERSECT, and MINUS
• How to use the advanced SQL JOIN operator
syntax
• About the different types of subqueries and
correlated queries
• How to use SQL functions to manipulate
dates, strings, and other data
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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In this chapter, you will learn (continued):
• How to create and use updatable views
• How to create and use triggers and stored
procedures
• How to create embedded SQL
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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Relational Set Operators
• UNION
• INTERSECT
• MINUS
• Work properly if relations are unioncompatible
– Names of relation attributes must be the same
and their data types must be identical
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UNION
• Example query:
– SELECT CUS_LNAME, CUS_FNAME,
CUS_INITIAL, CUS_AREACODE,
CUS_PHONE
FROM CUSTOMER
UNION
SELECT CUS_LNAME, CUS_FNAME,
CUS_INITIAL, CUS_AREACODE,
CUS_PHONE
FROM CUSTOMER_2;
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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UNION (continued)
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UNION ALL
• Example query:
– SELECT CUS_LNAME, CUS_FNAME,
CUS_INITIAL, CUS_AREACODE,
CUS_PHONE
FROM CUSTOMER
UNION ALL
SELECT CUS_LNAME, CUS_FNAME,
CUS_INITIAL, CUS_AREACODE,
CUS_PHONE
FROM CUSTOMER_2;
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UNION ALL (continued)
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INTERSECT
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MINUS
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Syntax Alternatives
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Syntax Alternatives (continued)
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SQL Join Operators
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Cross Join
• Syntax:
– SELECT column-list FROM table1 CROSS
JOIN table2
Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 7th Edition, Rob & Coronel
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Natural Join
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JOIN USING Clause
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JOIN ON Clause
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Outer Joins
• Returns not only matching rows, but also
rows with unmatched attribute values for one
table or both tables to be joined
• Three types
– Left
– Right
– Full
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Outer Joins (continued)
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Outer Joins (continued)
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Outer Joins (continued)
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Subqueries and Correlated Queries
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WHERE Subqueries
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IN Subqueries
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HAVING Subqueries
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Multirow Subquery Operators:
ANY and ALL
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FROM Subqueries
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Attribute List Subqueries
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Attribute List Subqueries (continued)
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Correlated Subqueries
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Correlated Subqueries (continued)
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Date and Time Functions
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Date and Time Functions (continued)
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Date and Time Functions (continued)
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