Connectors Connectors are a major cause of equipment failure. Pins are wired incorrectly, bare wires touch and short circuit or connector pins are accidently bent. Failed connectors can mimic system chassis failure DC Direct Current AC Alternating Current Alternating Current Alternating Current Alternating Current Radio Signal or Alternating Current (AC) Removing pins from connector Local Companies like Pan Pacific build connectors for Boeing Typical connector from your text “Bayonet coupling A quick coupling mechanism for mating a plug onto a Receptacle utilizing three equally spaced pins protruding from the receptacle shell which engage corresponding ramps milled into the coupling nut of the mating plug. Mating and unmating is accomplished by rotating the coupling nut.” Radio Frequency Connectors • BNC Bayonet Neill Concelman (British Navel Connector) • TNC Threaded Neill Concelman connector • Series N Plug (connector) weatherproof, RF connector, with consistent performance through 11 GHz. Primary use is connecting and terminating Coax RG-8, RG- 58, RG-141 and RG- 225 • SMA connectors (Subminiature) Screw type mechanism like F connector, 50 ohm impedance, Electrical performance DC to 17 GHz. Sockets replaces the historic Male and Female connector http://rmsconnectors.com/ RMS company Connector Catalog with Mil-Spec data http://rmsconnectors.com/pdfs/rm s_connectorsGuide.pdf Polarization D Subminiature. • D Subminiature. – The "D" refers to the shape of the connector, which is wider on one side to prevent the plug from being inserted incorrectly. – The connector is often used in circuits under about 5 amps, such as power, audio, digital signals and ground. – Manufactured in many sizes sizes, with 15-and 25-pin models common in avionics. – The type sold in most electronics stores for PC use are unreliable for aviation use. A good connector will also have a sturdy system for removing strain on the cable. ARINC Connectors When old airline aircraft are upgraded with digital avionics (such as the Boeing 747-400) the flight deck becomes a "glass cockpit," meaning EFIS, the electronic flight instrument system. Digital equipment requires ARINC 600 connectors • 404 • http://www.te.com/cat alog/feat/en/c/18538 . • 600 – used on new digital equipment • http://www.te.com/cat alog/feat/en/c/18598 600 connectors ARINC 600 Rack and Panel Connectors 150 connections in one block • A large variety of tools are used for inserting and extracting pins from connectors • A large Aviation industry surrounds the construction of connectors. • Tools like these are replacing the soldered type connectors Connector tools Heat Gun A heat gun is essential for heat shrink tubing and solder sleeving. Heat Gun • Video of Heat Gun http://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=NR n9lYKD-Wg • Video of N connector http://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=wD P6nFwqAps Coax Connectors http://www.te.com/catalog/menu/e n/26435 Coaxial Cables have the following construction Metallic center conductor Layers of Dielectric or insulating Material A shield Foil Wire mesh A protective jacket Coaxial or Coax Cable The inner and outer conductors are separated by an insulating layer known as dielectric. Choice of materials and dimensions determines the cable's electrical properties, including attenuation at various frequencies. TNC next to BNC Coax coax Coax Video of coax Single shield Coax 2 Shields for immunity to electrical noise--Ingress This is not Twinax, see below connector Triaxial cable Twinaxial Coax Bend Radius Wiring to hold connectors in place Lockwire Applications other than Avionics Safety wire or lockwire is a type of positive locking device that prevents fasteners from loosening due to vibration and other forces. The presence of safety wiring also serves to indicate that the fasteners have been properly tightened. Safety Wire Connectors (soldered) Connectors • “Working with connectors often takes up more of an installation technician's time than any other task” quote from your text. • Light aircraft have connectors in the dozens while large AC have them in the hundreds.