Solar Thermal Biomass Processor Jeremy R.G. Anderson, Joshua A. Hoverman, and Matthew J. Traum, Ph.D. [email protected] Engineering A Sustainable Earth Mechanical Engineering Department, Milwaukee School of Engineering Milwaukee, Wisconsin Overview • Thermal Processing • Markets • Benefits • Progress • Future Work • Desired Outcomes Parabolic Trough Receiver Tube (Reactor) Hopper Controls Products Parabolic Trough Waste Biomass In Drying electricity Torrefaction Pyrolysis Syngas Biochar 300K – 373K 473K – 553K 553K – 873K 800F – 2100F 3900F – 5350F 5350F – 1,1110F fertilizer System Parameters Q mc T Heat P Q t mc T t Power P=16kJ/s=16kW 16m2 Needed At 15 MJ/kg Energy cycle per hour Heat Loss 8 MJ 900 MJ Solar Receiver Tube(Reactor) 58 MJ 617 MJ Syngas Heat Biochar 333 MJ Markets • Agriculture • Forestry • Municipal waste • Bio-fuel production Environment • Renewable energy • Carbon sequestering process • Facilitates organic farming • Improves soil quality • Reduces run-off pollution Economics • Energy products • Eliminate solid-waste tipping fees • Reduce fertilizer costs (Biochar) • Carbon credit sales • Creates new sustainable jobs • Retains current jobs Biomass Syngas Biochar Prototype Components Phase II • FF-MCHP system (Flexible Fuel Micro Combined Heat and Power) • Consolidate power generation with hot water and air services • Develop a robust and inexpensive disc turbine for power generation • Design intuitive turbine controls for optimal waste heat utilization • Optimize total system thermal efficiency Syngas Methane Modified Brayton Cycle Combustion Chamber Disc Turbine Comp ATM Hot Water Gen. Hot Air ATM Disk Turbine Components Nozzle Rotor Source: Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Ferenc Lezsovits Desired Outcomes • Pilot system for Sweet Water by May 2013 • Closed loop urban agriculture • Synergy of multiple technologies • Proof of concept Solar Thermal Biomass Processor Jeremy R.G. Anderson, Joshua A. Hoverman, and Matthew J. Traum, Ph.D. [email protected] Engineering A Sustainable Earth Mechanical Engineering Department, Milwaukee School of Engineering Milwaukee, Wisconsin Acknowledgements • EASE Board of Directors • Sigma XI • MSOE Research Team –Josh Hoverman –Kyle Pace –Matt Wesley References  Steinfeld A, Palumbo R: Solar Thermochemical Process Technology. In: Meyers RA, editor. Encyclopedia of physical science and technology. New York: Academic Press, ISBN 0-12227410-5, 2001;15:237–56.  Carolan J, Joshi S, Dale B: Technical and Financial Feasibility Analysis of Distributed Bioprocessing Using Regional Biomass Pre-Processing Centers. J Agric Food Ind Org 2007, 5:129.  Gallagher P, Dikeman M, Fritz J, Wailes E, Gauther W, and Shapouri H: Biomass from Crop Residues: Cost and Supply Estimates. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Office of the Chief Economist, Office of Energy Policy and New Uses. Agricultural Economic Report No. 819  Kellig R, Brenta G, Stephen J, Norman R, Nelsehmann S: Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology. College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW2251, Australia  Prins M, Ptasinski K, Janssen F: Thermodynamics of Gas-Char Reactions: First and Second Law Analysis. Chemical Engineering Science 58 (13-16):1003-1011.  Roberts K, Gloy B, Joseph S, Scott N, Lehmann J: Life Cycle Assessment of Biochar Systems: Estimating the Energetic. Economic and Climate Change Potential, Environmental Science and Technology 44, 827–833.