3D Meetup Presentation

Report
Material Science of 3D Printing
Filaments
Milwaukee 3D Meet Up
Coex3D
11-2-2013
Topics
• Filament Manufacturing
• Upstream
• Extrusion
• Down Stream
• Polymer Science 101
• Monomers
• Morphology
• Melt Behavior
• Filaments
• Discussion
Filament Manufacturing
Filament Manufacturing
Up-Stream Processing
Resin Drying
• Critical steps in resin processing
• Hydrophilic resins needs to be
dried to make 3D filament
• PLA, PET, PC, PA, PVOH are highly
Hydrophilic
• ABS slightly Hydrophilic
Filament Manufacturing
Up-Stream Processing
Resin Drying
Filament Manufacturing
Up-Stream Processing
• Color Feeders
• Color concentrates
• Additives
• Throat Mixers
• Magnet
Filament Manufacturing
Real Extruders
Extruder Elements
• Zone Heated Barrel
• Screw
• Screen Pack
• Breaker Plate
Filament Manufacturing
Real Extruders
Process Conditions on Extruders
• Melt Temperature
• Melt Pressure
• RPMs
• Motor Load
Filament Manufacturing
Real Extruders
Extruder Screws
• Feeding
• Melting
• Compression
• Mixing
• Material Specific
Filament Manufacturing
Water Quench
Water Bath
• Filaments are often water quenched
• Molten phase to solid phase
• Methods are often trade secret
• 10-30 feet water cooling
Filament Manufacturing
Filament Orientation
Filament Manufacturing
Laser Micrometer
Filament Manufacturing
Spooling
Filament Manufacturing
Packaging
Polymer Science for 3D Printers
Polymer Science 101 for 3D Printers
Plastic vs. Polymer
Plastic
• Plastics are polymers which, under appropriate
conditions of temperature and pressure, can be molded
or shaped.
Polymer
• A large molecule formed by the chemical union of five
or more identical combining units called monomers
Polymers Science 101
Monomers
• Number of monomers (Molecular Weight) influences
viscosity and strength properties
• (wax 30-350 RU, PP 7,000 – 24,000 RU)
• Types and location of the monomer influence polymer
chemical and mechanical properties
Polymers Science 101
Morphology
Polymers Science 101
Melt Behavior - Viscosity
• Viscosity
• Melt Index Test (MI or MFR)
• Mass/Time @ Temp & Weight
• 3D Printing Filaments are
typically injection molding
resin grades
• 10+g/10 min @ 220°C 10kg
• Lower MI or MFR would
require more force on
filament advance
• Intrinsic viscosity (IV) is used
to measure viscosity for
polymers like PET
Polymers Science 101
Melt Behavior – Melting Temps
• Thermal Transitions
• Glass Transition – Amorphous materials flow, they do not melt
• Melting Point – The temp at which a crystalline structure transitions to a
liquid Amorphous structure
3D Printing Filaments
Polymer Science 101
Polylactide (PLA) - General
Polylactide (PLA)
• Biopolymer - derived from corn
• Relatively clean resin
• Condensation reaction
• Translucent
• Translucent Blue
Polymer Science 101
Polylactide
Polylactide (PLA)
• Morphology
•
•
•
•
Semi-crystalline polymers
Filament production method and colorants will change crystalinity levels
Resin has a Tg 55-60°C & Tm of 145-160°C
Different processing temps on printer (≈220°C)
• Melt Behavior
• MFR: 6 g/10 min (210°C & 2.16 Kg)
• Monomer
• Latic Acid
• Density: 1.24 g/cc
Polymer Science 101
ABS
Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene
• Derived from 3 monomers
• Monomers % - Properties
• Not a clean resin to extrude
• Opaque
Polymer Science 101
ABS
Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)
• Morphology
• Amorphous
• Grade dependent Tg 100°C - 130°C
• Melt Behavior
• MFR: 1.1 g/10 min (200° C & 5 Kg)
• MFR: 13 g/10 min (220° C & 10 Kg)
• Monomer
• Acrylonitrile, Styrene & Butadiene
• Density: 1.03 g/cc
Polymer Science 101
PVOH
PVOH
• Water soluble polymer
• Commonly used in 3D Printing
for structural elements that are
dissolved after print is complete
• Narrow gap between PVOH
melting temp and thermal
degradation – run as cool as
possible
• Keep Dry when not in use
Polymer Science 101
CX-Glass & CoPET
• CX-Glass (Developmental)
• Glass like polymer
• Extremely clean polymer
• Morphology
• Amorphous
• Melt Behavior
• MFR: 13 g/10 min (220° C & 10 Kg)
• Clear
• Heated bed required
CoPET (Developmental)
• Copolyester polymer
• Clean polymer
• Morphology
• Amorphous
• Melt Behavior
• MFR: 10 g/10 min (220° C & 10 Kg)
• Clear
Polymer Science 101
CX-Glass & CoPET
General Polymer Properties
General Filament Properties
Typical Printing
Range
MFR
Polymer
Morphology
Monomer
Density
ABS
ABS - HT
Amorphous
Amorphous
15-30% AN, 5-30%B 40-60% S
15-30% AN, 5-30%B 40-60% S
(g/cc)
1.03
1.06
PLA
Semi-Crystalline
Lactic Acid
1.24
PVOH
Amorphous
Vinyl Alcohol
1.28
CoPET
CX-Glass
Amorphous
Amorphous
NA
NA
1.27
1.02
190C @
21.6 Kg
210C @ 220 C @ 230 C @
2.16 Kg
10 Kg
2.16 Kg
(g/10 min)
13
6
Tglass
VSP
Tmelting
(°C)
(°C)
217
257
(°C)
6
145-160
27
10
11
Comments
(°C)
210-240
250-265
Slightly Hydrophillic
Slightly Hydrophillic
210-230
Higly Hydrophillic
85
120
160-180
Higly Hydrophillic, Run
Cool
80
78
85
240-265
220-240
Higly Hydrophillic
NA
Thank You
If you would like a copy of the presentation just drop me an
email at
[email protected]
Or
coex3d.com/contact

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