Using Scientific Thinking

Report
Investigate buoyancy
Use inductive and deductive reasoning
1. Background Information:
 http://dsc.discovery.com/tvshows/mythbusters/videos/lets-talkbuoyancy.htm
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2. Predict whether a piece of clay will float in
water.
◦ Record your prediction on your paper
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3. Fill your measuring cup with 400 ml of
water.
Shape your piece of clay into a wide cup and
place the cup-shaped piece of clay in the
water.
Record your observations on the back of your
lab paper.
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4. Remove the clay from the water, dry it
with a paper towel, and then tightly roll it into
a small ball.
Place the ball of clay in the water.
Record your observations on the back.
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5. Pour the water out of your measuring cup.
Dry off the measuring cup and clay and place
them back on the paper towel on your table.
Wash your hands with warm water and soap
when you are finished with this activity.
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Think it over:
◦ 1. What effect did rolling the clay into a ball have
on its ability to float? Explain using complete
sentences.
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Think it over:
◦ 2. Use what you learned in this activity to explain
why a steel anchor sinks but a steel ship floats.
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Think it over:
◦ Did you use deductive or inductive reasoning to
answer Question 2? Explain.
◦ What is deductive and inductive reasoning?
 Direction: Inductive reasoning moves
from the specific to the general.
Deductive reasoning moves from the
general to the specific.
 Deductive Reasoning: Deductive
reasoning is based on laws or general
principles. People using deductive
reasoning apply a general principle to a
specific example.
 All oranges are fruits. All fruits grow on trees.
Therefore, all oranges grow on trees.
 Dinner is always at 6 pm. It is 6 pm.
______________________
 Triangles have 3 sides. This shape has 3 sides.
________________________
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Inductive Reasoning: Inductive reasoning is based on
observation. People using inductive reasoning find a pattern
in a collection of specific observations and draw a general
conclusion based on that pattern.
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All the tigers observed in a particular region have yellow black
stripes, therefore all the tigers native to this region have yellow
stripes.
Kim, Ralene, Jim, and Rick finished first, second, third, and fourth
in a motor bike race. If their numbers were 5, 17, 1, and 7 use
the following clues to find out who had what number and in what
order they finished.
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17 said she would have placed higher if her bike would not have
stalled at the start.
Rick finished before 7 but after Ralene.
Jim wasn’t third.
1’s father said he was very proud of her finish.
Kim finished after 5.
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Which statements are deductive and which
statements are inductive?
1. Turtles have shells. They must use shells for
protection. _______
2. A puddle has frozen. It must be below 0
degrees outside. _______
3. Because of gravity, everything that goes up
must come down. _______
4. Many birds fly toward the equator in fall.
Birds prefer warm weather. _______

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